Contax Aria
- Section Three -

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Taking Pictures ~ Selecting the Exposure Mode 

You can choose the following exposure modes depending on your shooting object and application.4.butkus.org

Av: Aperture-priority Auto Exposure When choosing your desired aperture, the camera will automatically select the shutter speed suited for it to provide correct exposure. This mode is useful for taking pictures by utilizing the lens depth of field.

Tv: Shutter-speed-priority Auto Exposure (with MM type lenses only) When choosing your desired shutter speed, the camera will automatically select the aperture suited for it to provide correct exposure. This mode is useful for taking fast moving objects.

P: Programmed Auto Exposure (with MM type lenses only) In this mode, the camera will automatically select the optimum combination of aperture and shutter speed on a preset program in accordance with the brightness of the object. Because it is not necessary to set exposure, you can concentrate on composing your picture and choosing the best shooting moment.

M: Manual Exposure In this mode, you can choose the aperture and shutter speed as desired. Intentional over-or underexposure is also easy.

X: Flash Photography This mode is for use with an ordinary flash unit having only an X-contact but no dedicated flash linked contact. A shutter speed of 1/125 is used. For details, see "Taking Pictures Using X-contact Flash Units Other than TLA Flash Unit" on page 162.

B: Bulb Exposure This mode can be used for taking night scenes or pictures of the sky at night which require long exposure.

· If an AE lens is mounted on the camera, you cannot take pictures in the "Tv" or "P" mode. Even if it is been set to the "Tv" or "P" mode, it will nevertheless operate in the "Av" mode.

· If no lens is mounted on the camera, the exposure mode will automatically switch to the "Av" mode even if it has been set to the "Tv" or "P" mode.

Aperture-priority Auto Exposure [Av]

1. Set the exposure mode selector lever to 1 "Av."

2. Set the aperture and shoot.

When setting the aperture with the lens aperture ring, the camera will automatically set a suitable shutter speed. The set aperture and the automatically set shutter speed light in the viewfinder. It does not matter where the shutter speed dial is set.

Example 1:  When a large aperture is used the depth of field is small.

Example 2:  When a small aperture is used the depth of field is large.


Shutter-speed-priority Auto Exposure [Tv] (with MM type lenses only)

1. Set the lens aperture to the minimum 1 aperture (green) and set the exposure mode selector lever to ""Tv."."

The minimum aperture on the aperture ring of MM type lenses is marked in green to show that you should set the lens to it in the programmed auto exposure and shutter speed- priority auto exposure modes.

2. Set the shutter speed and shoot When the shutter speed is set by turning the shutter speed dial, the camera will automatically set the aperture suited for it.

Example 1: Fast shutter speed

 

Example 2. Slow shutter speed

 

< Shutter Speed Shift and Warning in the Shutter-Speed-Priority Auto Exposure Mode >
CLICK HERE TO SEE CHART ON ABOVE STATEMENT

In the ""Tv"" m mode , the shutter speed you have selected cannot provide correct exposure because the aperture suited for it is beyond the lens aperture range, the camera will then automatically shift the shutter speed to always provide correct exposure. The shifted shutter speed is displayed. The controllable range of shutter speeds on automatic setting is from 16 to 1/4000 seconds. 

· When the correct shutter speed is faster than that you have set, the aperture will blink. Make sure the lens is set at minimum aperture. 
· When an MM type lens is set to an aperture that is not its minimum aperture, the camera will automatically choose an appropriate aperture between the maximum aperture and the aperture being set.



Programmed [P] (with MM type lenses only)

1. Set the lens to its minimum aperture (in 1 green) and set the exposure mode selector lever to "P."

2. Compose your picture and shoot.
The camera will automatically select the optimum combination of aperture and shutter speed to suit your subject, and the selected aperture and shutter speed will be displayed in the viewfinder.


< Programmed Auto Control Diagram> (with F1.4 lens, using F16 and ISO 100)

The combination of aperture and shutter speed which can be set in the programmed auto exposure mode are shown in the diagram.

· An aperture value between the set aperture and full opening is automatically set if the MM lens is not set to its minimum aperture.


Precautions on Auto Exposure (Av, Tv, P)

 

Over/Underexposure Warning in Auto Exposure> Overexposure Warning: A blinking overexposure mark indicates overexposure. Because the subject is too bright, readjust the aperture so that the mark goes off. It is also possible to reduce the light intensity with an optional ND filter.

Underexposure Warning: A blinking underexposure mark indicates underexposure. Because the subject is too dark, use additional light to brighten up the subject or change the aperture so that the mark goes off. Also, a dedicated flash unit will let you take correctly exposed pictures.

· Even when an over-or underexposure warning appears, you can still take the picture by pressing the shutter release.

< Exposure Meter Indication in Evaluative Metering >

 In the evaluative metering mode, the exposure meter lights and indicates the difference between evaluative metering and center weighted average light metering. When only the center bar is displayed, there is no difference between evaluative metering and center-weighted average light metering. An additional bar lights for each 0.5 EV exposure change. When the difference is 2.0 EV or greater, the bar and Up will light.

· When the "" or  lights, the camera warns against under- or overexposure. Then adjust the exposure according to the instructions given on page 106.
· In center-weighted average light " " " spot " "  " metering modes, the exposure meter is not displayed.
· For information on the different metering modes, see page 116.


< Cautions on the Use of Accessories> 
When using a lens with a maximum aperture slower than F5.6 or an accessory with which the automatic diaphragm of the lens does not operate (auto bellows PC, microscope adapter, extension tube 7.5 mm, reverse ring, etc.), note the following:

(1) Though the aperture displayed in the viewfinder is fixed at "1.4", the camera light metering system will operate properly. 
(2) You cannot take pictures in the shutter-speed priority (TV) or programmed auto exposure (P) mode. Choose the aperture-priority exposure (Av) or manual exposure (M) when using these accessories.



Manual Exposure [M]

1.Set the exposure mode selector lever to "M".

 

 

2. Set the shutter speed and aperture and shoot. Set the shutter speed with the shutter speed dial and aperture with the aperture ring. The selected shutter speed and aperture value are displayed in the viewfinder. The exposure meter shows the difference between suitable exposure in the manual exposure mode and the correct exposure value in the set metering mode.

 

Set the shutter speed dial or the aperture ring to obtain correct exposure.4.butkus.org

 

Bulb Exposure [B]

1. Set the exposure mode selector lever to ""B"".

2. Set the aperture and shoot.

As long as the shutter release is depressed, the shutter will remain open to expose the film.

· Mount the camera on a tripod or a stable base to prevent camera shake and trip the shutter with Cable Switch L (optional accessory).

· While the film is exposed in the bulb exposure mode, the exposure counter in the display panel will indicate elapsed time during bulb exposure. It will count from "0'00~ to "9'59" (9 minutes 59 seconds), then repeat the same cycle.

· During exposure all the indicators in the viewfinder disappear.



Miscellaneous Shooting Techniques
This camera provides three metering methods: evaluative, center-weighted average light and spot metering. You can choose the desired method with the metering mode selector lever. Select the metering method that best suits the shooting conditions and your shooting requirements for optimum effect.

CLICK FOR CHART BELOW

<Evaluative Metering> "" mark As shown in the illustration, the evaluative metering method divides the scene into 5 segments and obtains independent metering data from each segment to determine optimum exposure depending on the condition of the subject. Thus evaluative metering handles not only normal shooting conditions but can automatically compensate for backlighted subjects leaving you free to compose the picture. .  

Center-Weighted Average Light Metering> " " In this method, the camera measures the light intensity with emphasis on the subject in the center of the viewfinder and also takes the brightness in the surrounding area into account to determine the exposure value. Because it accommodates fluctuations of light, it is suited for ordinary and fast-moving subjects. 

CLICK FOR CHART BELOW
< Spot Metering > " " In this method, the camera measures only the brightness of the subject in the center of the viewfinder (microprism area) to determine the exposure value. Its applicable area is within the outer circle of the center of the viewfinder. It is suited for backlighted subjects, stage scenes in which the main subject is spotlighted, or when there is an extreme difference between me subject and background.

Due to the metering characteristics of this when using a lens with a maximum exposure slower than F5.6 or the Mutar or close-up accessories (Auto Bellows PC, microscope adapter, auto extension tube, reverse ring, etc.) with actual exposure slower than F5.6 may cause metering error in spot metering. Under these conditions, use the center-weighted average light metering method.

The area marked by colored lines in the table represents the range of shutter speeds from 16 to 1/4000 seconds in which the camera can measure exposure in the auto exposure modes.

The range marked by thick lines represents the metering range with an F1.4 lens and ISO 100 film.

<Metering Range>  CLICK FOR CHART
This chart shows the relationship of the aperture, shutter speed and EV value, and you can check the metering range of your lens on it. If you are shooting with an ISO 100 film and F1.4 lens in the center-weighted average light metering mode, for example, first find "100" on the ISO column in the Lens Aperture table and locate "1.4" and "16" in this row (the minimum aperture of the Planar T. 50 mm is F16). Then, follow the corresponding oblique lines and find their intersecting points with the vertical line (EV) and horizontal line (shutter speed). This represents the limits of the metering range of an F1.4 lens which is EV "2" to EV "20".

* The exposure value (EV) shows the coupling range of an exposure meter and represents the shutter speed and aperture combinations that yield the same exposure effect in a given lightning condition. For example, EV 13 in the chart shows that you can take the same exposure at both F16 1/30 sec. and F8, 1/126 sec.

If there is a great difference in brightness between the subject and its background, the subject will not be correctly exposed. In this case, use exposure compensation. Exposure compensation can also be used for intentional over-and underexposure. There are three methods:

EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
<1. Using the Exposure Compensation Dial >
 
Normally, the exposure compensation dial is set to "O" in the aperture-priority (Av), shutter-speed priority (Tv) or programmed auto exposure (P) and manual exposure (M) modes. To compensate exposure, turn and set the dial so that your desired compensating value comes opposite the index mark. It can be set in 1/3-EV increments within a range of +2 EV to -2 EV. When the exposure compensation dial is set anywhere except "0", the "+" or "-" mark will blink in the viewfinder, indicating that the exposure compensation is in effect.

 
· In the manual exposure mode (M), exposure cannot be corrected using exposure compensation. However, the exposure meter shows the difference between the set value and "appropriate" exposure. Thus to compensate exposure, use the shutter speed dial or aperture ring to set the desired difference (exposure compensation) before shooting.4.butkus.org

· After taking pictures with exposure compensation, be sure to return the dial to "0".




· Backlighted Subjects Exposure compensation of "+1/3" to "+2" When shooting the subject against the light, under a bright sky, on an ocean beach, in front of a window, and so on, where the greater part of your picture is occupied by a bright background, the subject will be under-exposed and turn out dark like a silhouette when it is taken on center weighted average light metering. In such cases, use exposure compensation of +1/3 to +2 to give more exposure.

·  Spotlighted Subjects Exposure compensation of "-1/3" to "-2" When shooting a spotlighted subject where a dark background predominates in the scene, the subject will be overexposed and turn out light when it is taken using center-weighted average light metering. In such cases, use an exposure compensation of -1/3 to -2 to reduce the amount of light on it.

<2. Using the AE Lock > 
The AE lock is used for storing the exposure value (combination of shutter speed and aperture) of the subject in memory during auto exposure. It is used when you shoot the backlighted subject or when you make continuous shooting of a moving subject at a fixed exposure. When the main switch is set to "AEL", the exposure value at that time will be stored in the camera memory so that you can trip the shutter with the same exposure value, unaffected by changes in brightness on the background.

1. First, face the central part of the view finder toward your subject then switch the main switch from "ON" to "AEL." The exposure will thus be locked.

To measure exposure in a narrow area and lock it, set the metering mode selector lever for spot metering and use the AE lock.

· The metering mark in the viewfinder blinks during AE lock.
· Set the main switch to "AEL" when the display in the viewfinder lights.

2 Recompose your subject and shoot.


· The exposure value will remain in memory while the AE lock is activated, but the display will turn off after 16 seconds to save battery power.
· In the continuous-shooting modes (drive mode "C"), you can take pictures in succession with the same exposure value, unaffected by changes in brightness on the background, if you have locked the exposure.
· This camera stores in memory the exposure value in a combination of shutter speed and aperture. For example, if the aperture is changed in the "Av" mode after the AE lock is activated, the shutter speed will follow to maintain the same exposure value.
· When changing the exposure compensation value in AE locked mode, exposure is made as follows:


<3. Using the A.B.C. Mode (Automatic Exposure Compensation for 3 Consecutive Frames)>
 This mode allows you to take pictures automatically in three different steps of exposure: standard, overexposure and underexposure. Even when taking pictures under fluctuating exposure conditions, you can easily capture your subject without worrying about exposure settings. All you have to do is to press the shutter release. A.B.C. is an acronym of "Automatic Bracketing Control".

In the A.B.C mode, the shutter speed or aperture is adjusted for automatic exposure compensation.

 
1 Move the A.B.C. lever to set the compensation value. The camera will switch to the A.B.C. mode. Two compensation values are available: +0.5 EV and +1 EV.

· When the exposure compensation dial is set to a position other than "0", the A.B.C. mode is established on the basis of the compensation value being set.
· Metering takes place during each exposure and the measured value is compensated for. When shooting under conditions unaffected by changes in ambient brightness, use the AE lock in the A.B.C. mode.

· After taking pictures in the A.B.C. mode, be sure to return the A.B.C. lever to "0."
· Flash pictures cannot be taken in the A.B.C. mode.

2 Set the drive mode to "C" and hold down 2 the shutter release. Depending on the compensation value that has been set, pictures will be taken in the order of "standard", "over" and "under". The camera stops when three frames have been exposed.
When the drive mode is set to "S", each frame is exposed in the A. B. C. mode. When the drive mode is set to " ", pictures are taken continuously in the A.B.C. mode after ten seconds.

In the A.B.C. mode, the exposure counter will change in the following order to show the order of shots.

Standard Exposure: Both left and right digits blink 
Overexposure: Left digit blinks
Underexposure: Right digit blinks

CLICK HERE FOR IMAGE OF A.B.C. MODE IN ACTION

· When the camera control range is exceeded by the compensation value, the limiting compensation value will apply.
· To cancel the A.B.C mode after it has been activated' set the A.B.C. lever to "O."
· When the main switch is turned off and then on again in the A.B.C. mode, three frames will be exposed again in the A.B.C. mode as described above.4.butkus.org


Flash Photography     CLICK HERE FOR CHART
When taking pictures indoors or at night where shutter speed of slower than 1/30 sec. is required, use a flash. In combination with the Contax TLA Flash System, this camera is designed to provide "TTL direct light metering" in which the amount of flash light can be automatically controlled on the camera side. When using the TLA360 Flash Unit, be sure to read the section, "CONTAX TLA360 Flash Unit" on page 202. When using standard X-contact flash unit, set the exposure mode selector lever to "X."

Taking Pictures on TTL Direct Light Metering>

1 Mount the TLA flash unit on the camera 1 and turn it on.

2 Set the flash unit to ``TTL AUTO."  As soon as the flash is fully charged, the mark " " will appear in the viewfinder and the shutter speed will automatically be set depending on the exposure mode.

· Manual (M), flash (X), and bulb (B) exposure:
· When "M" is used, the shutter speed cannot be automatically set by the camera. Be sure to set it manually to 1/125 sec. or slower.
· The shutter speed you have set will be indicated in the viewfinder.
· When "X" is used, the shutter speed is set to 1/125 sec. and "125" in the viewfinder will light.
· When "B" is used, "blb" will light to indicate "Bulb Exposure."

3 Set the aperture and shoot.

· In the "Tv" mode, the aperture is not set automatically. Be sure to set it manually.

· After the flash has fired, the mark will blink for two seconds if the subject was correctly exposed.

· When the mark " " does not blink after shooting, change the aperture or the shooting distance because your subject will be underexposed.


· In the close-up shooting, even if the " " mark blinks after shooting, overexposure may occur. Follow the instruction manual of the flash unit to get the desired shooting range.

· Be sure to set the A.B.C. lever to "0."
· When the drive mode is set to continuous shooting mode "C," consult your flash unit's instructions regarding flash intervals and light output during continuous shooting.
· The coupling range of film speeds is ISO 25 to 800 (without exposure compensation).

<Slow-shutter Synchronization> 
Slow-shutter synchronization at 1/30 sec. or slower is effective for taking nighttime pictures and twilight scenes with flash. This camera facilitates slow-shutter synchronization in combination with a TLA flash unit.

· When taking slow-shutter synchro flash pictures, use a tripod to prevent camera shake because the shutter speed will be slow.
· In "Av", "Tv", or "P" exposure modes: Set the main switch to "AEL." In this case, the shutter speed will be locked at the measured value in ambient light. Make sure the flash is fully charged and shoot.
· In "M" exposure mode: Set the shutter speed at 1/30 sec. or slower. Adjust the aperture ring to the measured value in ambient light so that the exposure meter indicates "correct exposure" in the viewfinder. Make sure the flash in fully charged and shoot.


<Daylight Flash >

 Subjects under direct sunlight or backlight will turn out dark without exposure compensation or fill-in flash. When using the TLA flash in the TTL auto mode in such cases, both the subject and background will be beautifully exposed.

· In "Av" or "Tv" exposure mode: If the up mark blinks after the flash is fully charged, adjust the aperture ring to make the aperture slower until the up mark disappears.

· In "P" exposure mode: In bright light, the exposure is automatically adjusted for daylight flash.
· In "M" or "X" exposure mode: In the "M" mode, set the shutter speed dial to 1/125 sec or slower. Adjust the aperture so that the exposure meter in the viewfinder indicates "correct exposure" and shoot.

<Using the Exposure Compensation Dial > In the TTL auto mode, the amount of flash light couples with the camera's exposure compensation dial. If you want to bring out the mood by adjusting the amount of flash, use the exposure compensation dial.


< Second Curtain Synchronization > 
Second curtain synchronization is very useful for shooting moving subjects when using slow shutter synchronization. In ordinary flash photography, the flash is fired immediately after the first curtain of the shutter has completed traveling (first curtain synchronization).

 In combination with a Contax flash having a second curtain synchronization capability, this camera can trigger the flash just before the second curtain starts to travel (second curtain synchronization). Behind the subject illuminated by flash light, the movement of the subject illuminated by ambient light is captured like a flowing line so that its natural movement is depicted clearly.

· The exposure is controlled in the same way as for ordinary flash photography (first curtain synchronization).


<Taking Pictures Using X-contact Flash Units Other than TLA Flash Unit>
1 Mount the flash unit on the camera. Set l the exposure mode selector lever to "X." The shutter speed is set to 1/125 sec.

· It does not matter where the shutter speed dial is set.

2 Set the aperture and shoot.

Set the aperture according to the instructions for the flash unit you use.

· When using a cord type flash that has no direct contact, connect the cord to the sync terminal on the side of the camera.


Multiple Exposure

1 Set the drive mode button to select the 1 multiple exposure mode " ". For information on settings, see section, "Drive Mode Button" on page 70.

The " " mark on the display panel blinks.

2 Depress the shutter release.

The first exposure is made, shutter is cocked but the film is not advanced.

The " " mark on the display panel is now lit continuously.


3 Press the shutter release a second time.
After the second exposure, the film is advanced and the multiple exposure is completed.

· When the multiple exposure has been made, the camera is reset to ""S"" drive mode.  · Even if the main switch is turned off after the first exposure, the camera is ready for the second exposure when the main switch is turned on again.

· The multiple exposure mode is canceled if the camera is set to some other drive mode before exposure.

· Note that the multiple exposure mode cannot be canceled when the first exposure has been made.

· The multiple exposure mode is canceled if the main switch is turned off when the " mark on the display panel blinks. The next time the main switch is turned on, the camera goes on in drive mode "S."


To make 3 or more multiple exposures: 
Press the drive mode button after step 2 page 164 to change the " " mark on the display panel from steady light to blinking. This action will allow you to make one more exposure. You can repeat this action to as make as many exposures you wish.

Using the Self-Timer
1 Set the drive mode button to select the 1 self-timer mode " .  For details, see section, "Drive Mode Button" on page 70.


2 Focus the lens on your subject and depress the shutter release. The self-timer will start to operate and the shutter will be tripped after ten seconds. When the self timer is operating, the self-timer LED on the front of the camera blinks.

· Mount the camera on a tripod when you are using the self-timer. 
· The self-timer cannot be used when the camera is set to bulb exposure. 
· When the shutter release is depressed while the self-timer is running, the counter will reset itself and be tripped after 10 seconds. 
· To cancel the self-timer when it has started, turn the main switch off or press the drive mode button.
· During automatic shooting using the self-timer, stray light may enter the viewfinder eyepiece and affect exposure since you cannot keep your eye at the viewfinder. To prevent this, attach the eyepiece cover over the eyepiece (see page 22).

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