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This page is copyright© by , M. Butkus, NJ.
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TO FIRST SECTION
Attaching the measuring chain
To protect your MINOX against accidental falls, always keep it on its chain. Insert the rectangular plug at the end of the chain into the corresponding chain socket of the camera.
The spring-loaded dust cover will recede into the camera. Use the D-ring at the end of the chain in the manner of a screwdriver, inserting it into the slot of the plug disc, turn the
plug one-quarter turn to the right. (See illustration). To detach the chain, reverse these steps; insert D-ring in the slot, turn one quarter to the left--the plug will jump out of the
It pays to take care of your MINOX!
|The optical glass window of the lens should always be spotless; finger marks and dirt impair the sharpness and brilliance of your pictures. From time to time- wipe the window
gently with a soft linen cloth wrapped around a small wooden stick or tooth pick.
Keep the film compartments free from dust which may scratch the film; before inserting a fresh film cassette, blow into the compartment to dislodge and remove small dust particles.
Beware of sand and salt water! Only a few drops of salt water suffice to corrode the delicate mechanism of the camera. Should it ever drop into the water, you may perhaps save the camera if you open it and rinse it immediately after the salt water has entered, under running warm fresh water; then dry it at once near a heater an open fire. Rush your MINOX to our Repair Department with the notation: SALT WATER DAMAGE. If sand gets into the camera, try to blow it out before you operate the 'push-pull' rapid wind, if there is the least "grating", STOP, leave the camera as it is and send it to for cleaning with the notation: CAUTION, SAND IN CAMERA!
Your MINOX was carefully tested and checked before leaving the factory, and provided with long life lubricants. Do not attempt to disassemble it, and, above all, do not lubricate any part of it.
The facilities of our Service Department are at your disposal if the camera should ever require adjustment or repairs.4www.butkus.org
TIPS FOR BEST RESULTS
The "best" film
MINOX films are available in several different types for black-and-white photography, and for color pictures. The black-and-white films vary in sensitivity (speed) and grain characteristics. The sensitivity is expressed in American Standard Association exposure index numbers: ASA 25, ASA 80, ASA 100 and ASA 200, etc. These numbers are stated on the film package and should be used in setting the exposure meter. (See page 20). ASA 200 film is twice as sensitive to light as ASA 100, ASA 100 twice as sensitive as ASA 50o, and so on. Thus, under any given conditions. ASA 80 film, for instance, would require only half the shutter speed needed for ASA 28.
The lower the film sensitivity, the finer the detail it is capable of reproducing in the final print. Therefore, the fast films--ASA 100 and ASA 200--should be used only when there is not enough illumination for slower films, or when flash exposures are not feasible (stage photography, candid shots, etc.)
For 90°/o of your pictures, you will find ASA 25 the ideal choice; it has ultra-fine grain and thus gives you clear, sharp, crisp pictures; it has ample speed for all outdoor pictures and for flash shots. For copying of books, documents, etc. a special fine-grain film ASA 5 is available. (See page 38).
ASA 200 film and Color film is supplied in 36-exposure cassettes; all other black-and white films are in 50-exposure cassettes. For information about color film, see page 36.
Correct exposure measurement
You will always get correct exposures with your MINOX B Automatic camera, if you observe a few basic rules.
The front window (cell) of the meter must be completely unobstructed to give a correct reading. Don't let a finger cover the window--check the correct camera hold on page 4 and s.
Give the meter 2 to 3 seconds to measure the light while you hold down the button. Letting the button go too quickly may cause the needle to lock before it has reached full reading.
Always measure the important part of a scene. In a landscape, for instance, the sky which is usually much brighter than the principal parts of the scene, should not be included in the viewfinder while you are holding down the meter button. Point the viewfinder downward until most of the sky is no longer visible. Thus, you will get a correct reading for the fields, trees, houses, etc. which are important for the picture. Of course, when you take the picture, you may include the sky.
Similarly, when you take snapshots of people in the snow or in front of a light-colored wall, remember that the people are important, not the background. To get correct exposure, approach with your camera until you see in the viewfinder only the person or group which you want to snap. Only then should you press down the meter button to get your reading. After you have thus determined correct exposure, you may step back to include the background in the actual picture.
If it is inconvenient to make such a close-up measurement, you can use the "substitution" method of measuring the brightness of your hand or some object that is similar to, and
receives the same light, as the actual subject of your picture.
Close-up measurement is also used in back-lighted (against-the-light) shots. Measure only the important subjects which are actually in the shade. Where this is impractical -- mountain scenery, for instance -- use this rule of thumb: Take the reading by pointing the camera at the full scene; then move the shutter speed scale one step to the right for taking the picture. (Example: The reading is 1/200. Move the shutter scale to 1/100 second.) The rules for back-lighted subjects also apply to color pictures. In fact, very judicious measuring is essential for all color pictures. Whenever possible, use the close-up measuring method for pictures of people. Where this is not possible, the following modification will be helpful:
Principal subject in the shade . . . use one-half step longer exposure
People in snow pictures . . . . . use full step longer exposure
Scenes with much green foliage
(except in open landscapes) . ., use one-half step longer exposure
Dull, overcast day . . . . . . . use l/2 to full step longer exposure
Don't cover the exposure meter cell window. Give the meter needle 2 to 3 seconds for correct reading. Measure the important part of the picture. Use close-up measurement whenever possible. Modify exposure times under certain conditions.
Even the best photo-finisher can't give you a sharp print from a blurred film! Therefore, get used to a comfortable and steady hold of your MINOX during exposure. Some people can hold the camera perfectly still for 1/5 second; others have trouble even with 1/50 second. Experience will tell you whether you can get steady pictures at the slower shutter speeds. Generally, you will find it advisable to use a tripod or other firm support for l/20 second and slower. For all snapshots, use the hold suggested on pages 4 and 5, and make sure that you "squeeze" the shutter to avoid jarring the camera.
How about longer exposures?
In a pinch, try holding your MINOX steady by leaning your elbows on a table or other firm surface, or against a wall; better still, place the camera on a support, ledge, etc. It is best, however, to attach the MINOX with the MINOX camera clamp to a tripod. You will find the MINOX pocket tripod a particularly fine and versatile accessory. Little larger than a pencil, it opens up into a rock-steady tripod complete with a swivel top; you can use it on a table, chair, window sill, or lean it against a wall. You can also brace it against your shoulders. As an extra precaution against jarring the camera, always use a cable release for tripod exposures. The MINOX tripod comes with its own cable release!4www.butkus.org
"Frame" your subject
Advance planning of composition saves extra work in enlarging, and gives you precisely the picture you want every time. Since the MINOX viewfinder shows you the exact picture area, you can easily compose each picture before you actually take it, you can omit unimportant or disturbing details right at the start, and fill the picture area to best advantage.
Close-ups of small things
|There is a special fascination in a big close-up. A frame-filling picture of a single blossom showing the delicate details of each petal can be more rewarding than a whole acre of
flowers. Therefore: Get CLOSE to the subject! Your MINOX offers you the great advantage that you can get as close as 8 inches without any supplementary equipment or extra
lenses. Make the most of this excellent feature. Always use the measuring beads of the chain to determine the correct distance, and set the distance scale of the camera accordingly;
this is important because, at close range, the zone of sharpness is very limited.
For instance, when the distance scale is set at 1 ft. the sharpness extends only from 11 inches to 13 inches. Now you know why accurate distance setting is a must for extreme close-ups. Remember also that, at distances between 8 and 10 inches, the picture area lies a frame-width within the luminous frame of the viewfinder.
Hot Weather Precaution
|Films are sensitive to high temperatures.
Do not store MINOX films or your loaded MINOX in the glove compartment or window-shelf of your car, where the film may be affected by excessive heat.
How to stop moving subjects
Sports and other fast action call for high shutter speeds -- otherwise your pictures may be blurred. But even under unfavorable light conditions requiring slower shutter speeds, you can stop motion by using some professional tricks. For example, it is easier to stop motion of a subject moving straight toward the camera, or at a slight angle, than it is to "freeze" a subject moving at right angles to the camera. Or, watch for the moment of "suspense" such as is reaches by a swing at its highest point just before it moves down again, or by a tennis player during the serve when the ball is at the peak of the toss, and the racquet is about to be swung. Even 1/20 second will "stop" such shots. Here is another well-known professional trick that will help you get fine results with very fast motion--automobile races, speed boats, skiing, etc.: Keep the car, boat, or skier centered in the MINOX viewfinder and follow the motion with the camera, releasing the. shutter at any instant during this panoraming. The background will be blurred, adding to the impression of speed, but the subject stays sharp even at 1/50 second.
The MINOX has built-in flash synchronization, which actuates the flash when the shutter button is pressed. Any flash unit may be used with the MINOX. There are two basically different types of flash units: Electronic flash units and units using expendable flash bulbs. Electronic units are equipped with a flash tube. The initial cost of such units is higher but, generally speaking, the operating expense in negligible. Because of the extremely high speed of electronic flash, even fastest motion can be "frozen". The MINOX B/C Flashgun is particularly convenient. This uses AG1 Bulbs. Small flash units may be attached to the chain socket of the MINOX B by means of the flash adapter. For use with large flash units the MINOX B may be attached to a flash bracket by means of the MINOX camera clamp (see page 44).
Electronic Flash can be used with any shutter speed up to 1/500 second. The shorter the shutter speed, the greater the influence of the flash upon the illumination and character of the picture. For electronic flash units of medium brightness, use films of 13 or 14 DIN. All pictures to about 18 - 25 feet will be well exposed. The differences in the negative quality are so slight that they do not affect the enlarging ability. For short distances (less than aft) the effect of the flash can be cut in half by using the green filter (neutral density grey filter should not be used). Since electronic flash units usually emit very harsh light, the following suggestions will be helpful in reducing the extreme brilliance:
1. Detach the flash unit from the camera and use it at a greater distance and to the side of the camera. An extension cord for this purpose is available at your MINOX dealer. Be
careful however that the shadow of the camera does not show in the picture. 2. Hold white paper or thin white fabric (handkerchief, for instance) in front of flash reflectors; this
not only reduces the intensity of the light, but makes it considerably softer.
Flash bulbs can be used at shutter speeds up to
1/20 second. The usual capless bulbs may be used as readily as the larger types. Flash unite with built-in condensers (B/C) such as the MINOX
Flashgun are preferable because they assure perfect flash timing even after many months use of the same battery.
To reduce the flash intensity with flash bulbs at closer distances, you can use the same methods recommended for electronic flash above.
It's a colorful world
The 15 mm f/3.5 Complan lens of your MINOX is fully color corrected, and has an anti-reflection coating -- in other words it is ideally suited for color photography.4www.butkus.org
If you have never taken color pictures before, keep in mind the following points to help you get fine results:
Color film yields the best results in bright or hazy sunlight; on overcast days, results are usually disappointing.
The best time for color pictures is mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Around noon, the light is usually bluish, resulting in very 'cold' colors or an over-all bluish tinge. During the hours just after sunrise, or before sunset, the light is more reddish, resulting in very 'warm' colors.
Watch for the possibility of color reflections (which may not be noticeable to the eye): A white dress on a green lawn is never pure white, but faintly green! Color film requires careful exposure measurement; even slight deviation from the correct exposure may result in false color reproduction. (Read the suggestions about exposure on page 29).
Under-exposure results in dark colors, over-exposure produces pale pictures with washed-out colors.
As a general rule, color pictures are best taken with the sun slightly to one side behind the photographers back.
Avoid deep shadows on faces, and strong contrasts between light and dark portions of a scene.
If you are seriously interested in all phases of color photography, you will find it worthwhile to read one of the many comprehensive books covering this field.
For more fun with your MINOX - -
read "Small MINOX--Big Pictures" the entertainingly written complete guide to MINOX photography which explains and illustrates every use of your MINOX and its
accessories. Beautifully printed on coated paper, and bound in linen, this pocket-size book tells the full MINOX story. You will enjoy reading it, and it will help you improve your
own MINOX technique. "Small MINOX--Big Pictures" is for sale at your MINOX dealer's.
|Copying of documents, drawings, books, etc. is no problem for your MINOX. By using a tripod, MINOX Copying Stand (see page 46), MINOX Copying Arm, or other means of
support, you can conveniently copy such material, getting as close as 8 inches for largest possible reproduction.
Use the special MINOX ASA 5 Micro Copy (Doku-Ortho) film, except when copying illustrations or photographs containing half-tones for which the regular ASA 25 film should be used. (See back flap of this manual for areas covered at various distances).
Left MINOX copy of an engraving by Marltin Schongauer. Micro Copy - ASA 5 film.
|Changing the film type
Some day you may want to take color pictures just when your MINOX is loaded with black-and-white film -- or vice versa.
When you want to change cassettes, pull-push the camera once to transport the last-exposed film frame into the take-up end of the cassette. Change the ASA setting of the meter for the next film (s. p. 20) before you open the back of the camera. Remove the cassette from the camera (seepage 23); note the number showing on the exposure counter, and write this number on the cassette for future reference.
Insert the new cassette after you have set the exposure counter to the red dot, (see page 19), and proceed in the usual manner.
When you re-load the "started" cassette: Change the ASA setting of the meter; then set the exposure counter three numbers back from the number which you noted when you originally removed the cassette. Example, if you removed the cassette at "28", set counter at "25". Now insert cassette in the usual manner. Pull-push the camera three times. This takes up any slack in the cassette and gets your MINOX ready for the next picture.
Right: Snapshot with electronic flash by Dr. G. Busch ASA 25 film.
You'll find it easy to get the "feel" of your MINOX within a short time, and to get a succession of fine pictures. If you should have a failure at one time or another, check it against these possible errors and learn to avoid repetition:
. . . IF the principal subject is not sharp:
The distance scale was not set correctly. Always set the distance carefully, especially for close-ups. (Use the measuring chain for extreme close-ups). OR
The motion of the principal subject (car, boat, skier) was too fast for the shutter speed used.
. . . IF there are blurted or double outlines:
The camera moved during exposure; (hold camera steady or use tripod for longer exposures; sometimes a table, chair or a wall will support the camera adequately.
. . . IF your pictures have a blurred shadow at the right, or at the bottom:
Your finger got in front of the lens! Watch your camera holds check it against the illustrations on pages 4 and 5.
. . . IF your pictures look cruddy and out of focus:
There's probably a fingerprint or smudge on the lens window of your MINOX Clean the window carefully (see page 26).4www.butkus.org
. . . IF your film shows irregular spacing or overlapping:
Either you forgot to set exposure counter at the red dot (page 19) when you started the film, or you did not pull and push the camera ALL THE WAY between exposures (page 3).
. . . IF some of your negatives are very thin or almost black:
(a) Exposure meter was set to wrong ASA number (page20);
(b) Exposure meter window was partly obscured during measurement (page 4);
(c) Exposure meter button was not held down for several seconds (page10).
. . . . . . If some prints show more "grain" than others from the same film:
Badly over-exposed pictures have coarser grain. Over-exposure is as undesirable as under-exposure. Make sure you use the exposure meter properly.
. . . IF film has thin horizontal scratches (telephone wires):
Dust is the enemy of your MINOX films. Never carry a film cassette in your pocket without a wrapper. Before loading the camera, blow out any dust particles which may have
lodged in the film compartments (page 27).
. . . IF the film cassette won't drop easily into the camera when loading:
The film gate must be open when the film is dropped into the camera. Be sure to push the camera (with open back cover) together about
1/8" to open the film gate (see page 21).
. . . IF the film cassette cannot be pulled out of the camera:
It's the film gate again! See previous paragraph.4www.butkus.org
. . . IF the film cassette does not lie flush in the camera, so that the back cover cannot be easily closed:
This is not your fault. It may happen on rare occasions when the film take-up core rests on the teeth of the transport wheel in the film compartment of the camera. Simply lift out
the cassette, pull camera open all the way, and close again just enough to open the film gate. Re-insert the cassette. Close cover.
. . . IF the film shows dark areas at intervals along the edges:
Either the cassette was handled in very bright light before or after loading; or the film was advanced beyond the red dot before un-loading which may result in light entering through the film slit of the cassette.
A pleasant MINOX snapshot by Werner Schmolcke: ASA 25 film, l/200 Sac.
|MINOX Camera Clamp
The Camera Clamp is used to attach the MINOX to a tripod, or to the bracket of a flash unit. It has a socket for a cable release which should be used for all tripod shots.
MINOX Pocket Tripod
Here is your best insurance for perfect pictures with the slower shutter speeds! Extremely compact, yet sturdy and versatile, the MINOX tripod even has an adjustable swivel head, The legs slide all into one so that the whole unit can be carried like a pencil, and a cable release is included, hidden and protected inside the tripod legs.
|MINOX Slide Projector
There is no greater thrill than seeing your fine MINOX color slides projected on a screen. All the subtleties of color are brought out in projection.
The MINOX Slide Projector is designed especially for MINOX slides. It has an efficient light system with a 100 Watt projection bulb, silvered concave glass reflector, and aspherical condenser lens. Triple wan construction of the all-metal housing assures free air circulation for constant ventilation of the lighting system. A heat absorbing filter gives added protection to the transparencies during projection. The projection lamp can tee adjusted for perfect illumination over the entire picture area.4www.butkus.org
Built-in front elevating micrometer screw permits height adjustment to centre the projected image on the screen.
MINOX transparencies for projection in the MINOX Slide Projector should be mounted In MINOX 30 x 30 mm transparency mounts. The Projector is supplied complete with
projection bulb, slide changer, and plastic carrying case.
It is fitted with either the bright f/1.6 as mm "MINOLUX" lens or the f/2.7 MINOSTAR.
Other useful accessories for the MINOX B
|The MINOX Binocular Attachment permits taking tale-photographs through most better binoculars.
With the MINOX Finder Mirror true-to-life, you can take candid snapshots "around the corner"! You stand at a right angle to the subject.
The MINOX Adjustable Copy Stand makes easy work of copying letters, documents, books, etc. It folds for easy pocket carrying.
You can examine your negatives with the MINOX Negative Viewer without removing them from the transparent MINOX Negative Wallet.
|The MINOX Flashgun (battery-capacitor type) just fits over the end by the camera.
The MINOX Transparency Viewer-Cutter is ideal for examining your color films before mounting; a squeeze of the handle cuts each frame neatly to the exact size for the
MINOX 30 x 30 mm Transparency Frames.
Developing of MINOX films becomes a simple and convenient matter with the MINOX Daylight Developing Tank; of course, you don't need a dark room! .4www.butkus.org
The MINOX Enlarger is designed especially for getting the very best results from your films; its critically corrected 15 mm f/3.5 lens matches the superb quality of the Complan lens in your MINOX camera.
|Accessories 44 - 47
ASA Settings 20, 21, 28
Binocular Clamp 46
Cable Release 15, 44
Chain, use of 8, 26, 32
Changing Film Type 38, 39
Cleaning the Camera 27
Close-ups 8, 32
Color Photography 28, 30, 36
|Copy Film 28
Copying Stand 38, 46
Depth of Field 6; 7, 8
Depth of Field Bracket 6,7,8
Developing Tank 47
Distance Scale 6, 7, 8
Distance Setting 6, 7, 8
Electronic Flash 34
Errors 40 - 43
Exposure 9,10,11, 12
|Exposure Counter 19
Exposure Measurement '29, 30
Exposure Meter 10, 11, 12, 20
Faults 40 - 43
Film Advance 3
Film Change 38, 39
Film Gate 21, 23
Film Loading 20
Film Unloading 23
Filter Slide 14, 25
|Filters 12,14, 24, 25
Finder s, 19
Finder Mirror 46
Flash 17, 34
Focusing 6, 7, 8
Grain 28, 41
Grey Filter 14,15, 24, 25
Green Filter 12, 24, 25
Holding Camera 4, 31
Lens Window 3, 26
Luminous Frame Finder 5,19
Neutral Density Filter 14, 15, 24, 25
Picture Area 19
|Pocket Tripod 44
Sharpness Zone 6, 7, 8
Slide Projector 45
Snapshot Setting 6, 7
Telescopic Rapid Wind 3
Time Exposure 15,16, 31
Tripod Clamp 44
Viewfinder s, 19
Zone of Sharpness 6, 7, 8
|Click here to see
distance chart: Distances are measured from the front of the camera.
Figures in light type apply when distance scale of camera is set exactly half-way between two adjacent engraved distance markings.
For convenient measuring of close distances, the MINOX chain is equipped with beads at 8"--10" --12" --18 "
TO FIRST SECTION