HTML Translations - German
These links will not translate any PDF files
This camera manual library is for reference and historical purposes, all
This page is copyright by , M. Butkus, NJ.
This page may not be sold or distributed without the expressed permission of the producer
I have no connection with Chinon Co., Japan
Second section of camera manual - BACK TO FIRST SECTION
The Depth of Field Table
Since the sharp zone in the picture does not end abruptly, but gradually changes to something less sharp, it is generally sufficient to read the depth of field in round figures. With this in mind the scale on the focusing knob has been calibrated for quick and practical use.
If exact figures are desired, these may be found in the table on page 29.
For normal use the upper of the double row of diaphragm figures is used as in the case when an enlargement is to be made later from the entire 2 1/4 X 2 1/4' negative. (These diaphragm openings are based on a circle of confusion of 1/1400 of the focal length.)
On the other hand if enlargements are to be made from o small portion of the negative (or Rolleikin negatives), it is advisable to go by the lower row of diaphragm openings (circle of confusion=f2000).
Explanation: the degree of sharpness required from a negative is exclusively dependent on the magnification of the prospective enlargement and its subsequent viewing distance.
In order to obtain a correct perspective impression at 10" (a comfortable viewing distance) a whole Rollei negative would have to be enlarged 3.1 X to 7 1/8 X 7 1/8. Enlargements of this size, viewed at 10", determine the basis far the minimum acceptable sharpness. With this in mind the size of the circle of confusion is computed and the limits of the depth of field ascertained. Negatives made in this way will permit enlargements also to larger sizes, while still retaining the same impression of sharpness. This is because the viewing distance is always correspondingly increased.4www.butkus.org
With enlargements from portions of Rollei negatives or from Rolleikin negatives, the requirements with regard to sharpness are more critical. In this case depth of field is calculated using a smaller circle of confusion. In practical use the required depth is obtained through the use of a smaller diaphragm opening
The effectiveness of the scale on the camera itself may be extended in the same manner merely by using the next smaller diaphragm opening than the one indicated for the desired zone.
If enlargements of very great size are to be made use a diaphragm opening two stops smaller than the one indicated.
here to see the "Depth of field Table"
Tensioning together film advance is automatic through crank action (1) ( -> p. 40).4www.butkus.org
Tensioning without film advance -- possible only with rail-film loaded camera--for intentional double or multiple exposures move release ring at base of crank in direction of arrow and then turn crank through one complete backward revolution until it stops (2).
Tensioning with Rolleikin: automatic through crank action. Double exposures not possible.
Tensioning with Plate Adapter: swing crank normally. through 180°, and back to stop. Repeated tensioning for multiple exposures possible.
Instantaneous exposures: with release guard in lowered position ()' press release button gently until it stops (3a).
Time exposures: set shutter to "B", unlock release button () press and hold for duration of exposure. To reduce possibility of camera movement, use a locking type cable release.
Long Time exposures. Set shutter to "B", depress release slightly (not enough to open shutter) and swing guard to lock it in this position (),(3b). Exposure press release completely (3c) and terminate by swinging release guard downward (down arrow) (3d)
The Synchro-lever (-> page 31) serves also as the cocking lever for the self-timer. In self-timer shots a delay of approximately ten seconds occurs between release of the shutter and the actual exposure. Any shutter speed, excepting B. from 1 to 1/500th sec. may be used. Cocking of the self-timer mechanism is possible only after the shutter itself has been cocked, and is accomplished by swinging the Synchro lever from position (4) in the direction of the arrow until it stops (5). To move the lever from to , pull out the spring loaded small knurled knob. Shorter delays than 10 seconds are possible by merely moving the lever only part of the way. Upon release of the shutter the lever immediately springs back to position (4), indicating that the mechanism has gone into action. This also serves to show that the setting is the only possible one to use when making flash self-timer shots (-> 8 p. 51).
To Use: First tension shutter (crank), then cock self-timer. Release shutter as usual.4www.butkus.org
|The shutter and self-timer may be left cocked even when the camera is laid away for short periods of time without weakening the power of the springs.|
III. FLASH LIGHT TECHNIQUE
In modern flashlight technique the camera shutter takes over the task of firing the bulb electrically at the right moment. In this way instantaneous flash exposures are possible with a hand-held camera.
The Synchro-Compur shutter in the Rolleiflex is, for this purpose, equipped with electrical contact. The contact may be adjusted to the required delay of the flash lamps by means of the Synchro-lever
Far safety reasons one pole of the contact is grounded to the camera body (isolation-test 700 volts). All commercially available flash guns and
electronic flash units may be used. Current-carrying capacity of the contact when several flash lamps are connected simultaneously 10 amperes
at 24 volts for a period up to o maximum of 1/l5th sec.
The M contact stands for full synchronization for flash bulbs with a firing delay of 16.5 thousandths of a sec. The fastest shutter speeds up to 1/500 sec. can be used. Because of the delayed contact, the shutter always opens to catch the greatest volume of the light.4www.butkus.org
The selection of flash lamp-type depends on the light output required by the subject. Many makes are available in three groups (normal, medium and high light output). The selection is dependent on the taking conditions, especially as to whether a room of shallow or great depth is to be illuminated.
Selection of M-X lever position, applicable speed range and exposures can be learned from the instructions of the different flash light products. Far the best known makes the table on page 34 contains the necessary information and the permissible shutter speeds.
Connecting Flash Unit: push flash cord plug into the socket on the camera.
Setting for desired flash position: Pull out the small knurled knob somewhat and swing lever to either (1) or (2). The knurled knob will spring back, locking the lever in the chosen position.
Removing Flash Cord Plug: unlock by swinging locking lever (3).
Click here to see the
"Flash Contact and Permissible Shutter Speeds" table
Explanation of the Table
The "Contact" column indicates the correct setting of the M-X lever far each lamp type.
The "Shutter Speed" column shows the permissible speed range:4www.butkus.org
Center: the recommended shutter speed includes practically the entire light output of the flash lamp. This assures the maximum illumination as well as the smallest diaphragm (for greater depth of field). The following applies as a general rule:
Use the standard recommended speed together with the correct setting of the M-X lever for the lamp in use.
Left: the fastest speed indicates the limit to which the shutter may be set. For lively action or sports subjects, the foster speeds are employed.
Right: the exposure time may be increased to the slowest speed (1 second or even time exposures), if, in addition to the flash, it is desired to make use of existing light. In such cases the total amount of light from all sources must be considered in choosing the diaphragm opening.
The Effective Exposure Time (as indicated in the table by means of colored ink) is not in each case identical to the shutter speed, but depends on the portion of the flash lamp light output utilized
With X-Contact the duration of the flash itself is actually shorter than any of the permissible shutter speeds. Therefore, the duration of the flash (figure shown in parenthesis) is the effective appropriate exposure time and the diaphragm opening must be the same regardless of the shutter speed selected.
With M-Contact the shutter speeds, from "fastest" to "recommended" fall within the duration of the flash: they, therefore, represent the actual exposure time and if the shutter speed is increased, the diaphragm must be opened accordingly. Only when slower shutter speeds are employed is the fully utilized light output equal to the actual exposure time, and this is the same as the recommended speed.
The illustration should make the utilization of the available flash light still mare obvious: the white symbols represent the flash, and their size, the utilized light at the shutter speed employed.
IV. LOADING AND FILM TRANSPORT
The Rolleiflex is loaded with 2 1/4 X 2 1/4, roll-film 120 or B 118 (620 not usable) and delivers 12 exposures
2 1/4 X 2 1/4".
The loading of the camera is confined to a few simple operations: open the back-- insert the full film spool --thread the film --close the back. From now on the film transport follows automatically through crank action.
To Open: swing aside the back locking lever at the bottom of the camera (1), lift the clip (2), open back (3), using the clip as a handle.4www.butkus.org
To Close: with the flat of the hand push the back closed, fold down the clip and return lacking lever to full forward position.
The back is generally removed only when replaced by the plate adapter.
To Remove: open back fully (4) and swing the locking lever on the right side back hinge (crank side) in the same direction until it stops (5). Slip back out of the opened hinge (6).
To Attach: insert detached back first into the left and then into the right hinge (with locking lever in the upper position).
Protect the open camera against prevailing dust and dirt and clean it occasionally with a soft camel's hair brush!
Never change film in direct sunlight, utilize at least your own body's shadow !
The camera may be attached to a tripod by means of the threaded socket on the bottom. Caution the length of the tripod screw must not exceed 3/16". If this is not possible, use 'Rolleifix. or other similar device and avoid damaging bottom of camera. For cameras with continental tripod sockets a reducing bushing is available.
Film Pressure Plate Must be Positioned Correctly!
When roll-film is employed, the inscription 2 1/4" X 2 1/4" must be visible below the film pressure plate. When changing from 120 roll film to 35 mm film, or the reverse, an adjustment must be made according to the film type being used.
To adjust the film pressure plate (1) Press the plate against the back and push it up or down until it stops. When released it must spring forward completely into the normal prone!
Inserting the Film Spool
In the factory-new camera the empty spool (take-up spool) is already in position. After removal of the exposed film the just emptied spool becomes a take-up spool, and must be transferred to the upper spool-chamber. The end with the slat goes to the right engaging the winding key of the film transport mechanism (2).
Both film spools are held in position by the spool knob devices on the camera's left side. The upper (take-up) spool knob also serves as a 35 mm frame counter when using the Rolleikin (see booklet "The Practical Accessories"). To change films both knobs are pulled to an outward position, where they will remain until a slight pressure is applied to make them return. The camera's back should be closed only after the knobs have been returned to their original positions--closing the back serves to lack the knobs in position.
To Insert the Empty Spool: first fit the spool over the winding key on the right (crank side) and pull out the guide knob
(3). Push the spool down on
the lea applying slight pressure, so that the knob may snap back into place fully
(4). It is then necessary to turn the crank until the fang slat in the empty
spool comes uppermost (5).4www.butkus.org
Note: The empty spool must be removed from the camera when using an adapter-- however, keep it handy for use with the next roll of 120 film.
To Insert a Full Film Spool: in the same way as applies to the take-up spool (6). The pointed end of the backing paper must point in the direction of the toke-up-spool chamber, so that the calved side of the backing paper remains on the outside
Threading the Film (Paper Leader)
After inserting the new film-spool tear the tape seal Open and remove it.
1. Thread the beginning of the backing paper through the rollers of the film feeler mechanism (important!) and draw it up to the take-up spool,
colored and printed side outwards (1).
2. Push the paper leader through the long slot of the take-up spool as far as it goes (2).
3. Tighten the backing paper by one spool turn (= approximately 3/4 crank turn), making sure that the paper is wound up properly an the take-up spool (3). Close back (with the film pressure plate adjusted according to instructions!).
The correct positioning of the film according to the first and following numbers of the exposure counter is accomplished exclusively by the crank. The correct operation of this is governed by stops4www.butkus.org
|Swing out crank (4), turn it until it stops with one continuous swing (5) and then back again until the next stop (6).|
It is now locked, until the automatically cocked shutter is released. The
simple rule then reads.
If the crank can be turned, it must be turned -- once in each direction until it stops, until it locks!
When advancing the film to exposure No. 1 some 4 to 5 complete crank turns are required. During the last turn a slight resistance of the mechanism must be overcome as the counter moves from 0 to 1. If it should happen that the crank reaches starting position when it stops, reverse direction one full turn, so that it locks!
During continued film transport the amount of crank travel decreases gradually to about a half turn.
When making exposures in rapid succession it is unnecessary to fold down the
crank each time. It remains locked in its starting position, ready for the next
film advance, with a slight pressure of the thumb keeping it against its stop.
If longer intervals occur between exposures the question could arise has the film already been advanced and the shutter cocked' The crank gives the answer immediately:
Only if locked is it "ready to shoot".
To Remove the Film
After the 12th and last exposure four complete crank turns are enough to wind off the rest of the backing paper (1).
To Remove: open the back in the shade, pull out upper spool knob and remove the film from the same side (2). Fold under a good portion of the backing paper (for easier opening when developing) and seal (3). Put the exposed film back into thee light-proof protective cover of the original package!
Click here to see
"Speed of Photographic Emulsions" chart
When loading with a new roll of film, adjust the film sensitivity setting of the exposure meter ( -> page 19). The film reminder should also be set. markings for all film types are available, Ortho Pan, Indoor color and daylight color. Turn the knurled knob and watch the window.
V. TIPS ON PICTURE-TAKING
Focusing far distant subjects including foreground. For maximum depth, set the infinity 00 mark to the end of the depth of field bond. Using diaphragm f 11, for instance, provides a depth of field sharpness extending from 00 infinity to approximately 17 ft (5 meters).
Use of filters is important in black and white shots to separate and emphasize the tones of the dominant colors, such as those of the blue sky, green foliage and yellow grain fields. Specific changes in the atmospheric mood of the picture can also be effected.4www.butkus.org
1. Blue Sky with Clouds: yellow filters darken blue skies and thus improve the reproduction of clouds. The deeper the color of the filter, the stronger and more dramatic the effect. Blue snow shadows are also rendered truer to tone. The green filter tones down the sky, brightens foliage and darkens the occasionally too lightly rendered reds (with pan film) such as sun-tanned flesh and red tile roofs. For filtering the sky but not the landscape: the Rolleipol filter darkens the blue sky only by eliminating the polarized light.
2. Haze and Mist: the blue filter, useful for pictorial effects, increases hazy effect. The orange or red cut through and improve the clarity of distant views. The blue filter reduces contrast, the red or orange increase brilliance. Maximum penetration of light haze is obtained with infra-red film and infra-red filter (700m,u). Barely visible mountain chains are reproduced clearly. An add effect with this combination is that green leaves are rendered almost white Filters are of no use at all in really bad weather when there is a good deal of moisture in the air.
|Click here to see the Chart of light spectrum||Click here to see the filter curve chart|
Seascapes, beach and high mountains: Use the ultra violet filter to cut out
ultra-violet rays and avoid washed out pictures.
Picture Composition Rules: distant views are generally better if foreground contains (for added depth impression) trees, people, animals, etc. Foliage is often used as a frame far the distant view. Focus should be sufficiently sharp in the foreground. Strong effects are created when deep shadows in the foreground are set against the lighter distance. Side lighting or even back lighting give the most impressive pictures.
The filter curves show the absorption of the various Rollei filters in the spectral ranges ultra-violet; visible spectrum blue to red (appr.400-760m,u), and infra-red. This means darker portion of the spectrogram = absorbed light; lighter portion = useful light. The light-transmission of the filter from the lowest point to the peak paint of the curve thus increases from O to 100%. While the UV filter cuts out the short wave ultra-violet portion of the spectrum, the green filter absorbs a substantial portion of the long wave red and infra-red range.
Far portraits with panchromatic film in the open air, choose a soft lighting, preferably in the morning or late afternoon. Favor soft light, avoid deep shadows. If necessary, light up the shadows with an aluminum fail--covered cardboard used as a reflector, or with flash. You can sometimes make effective use of light walls, clothing and snow as reflectors. Simple, proven artificial light procedure: lamp No. 1 next to camera somewhat above head level, lamp No. 2 on the side to lighten shadows. Far special effects, lamp No. 3 as overhead or back-light. Important: use lens hood and focusing extension hood for reducing extraneous light. Moisten lips (highlights!). To reduce sharpness and add glamour, Rolleisaft (soft diffusion disc) 0 or 1 (stronger) over lens. Use larger diaphragm openings and backlight far sunny effects.4www.butkus.org
Shutter speeds and diaphragm openings do not often need changing in sunlight. Those suggested cover most contingencies. Thus instead of wasting time for focusing when in a hurry, use one of the above settings. This snapshot technique is especially useful with the direct view finder. Variation of the values (see table page 29) makes this technique available far other depth of field zones. Example: diaphragm opening f 11, focus at 30 ft. depth of field extends from 15 ft to oo (infinity) for snapshots of scenes. Chief uses for this technique: groups in motion, street scenes, playing children, reportage, sports.
|1. Use fresh batteries. Condenser or capacitor flashguns are
more consistent since lamp ignition is some what less dependent on battery power
2. Be sure that the contacts of the battery and lamp sockets are clean. Handle flash cable with care, avoid kinking, otherwise there will be danger of short circuit and premature flash ignition. -- Note: the contact must no t be connected to house current!
3. To light up long rooms or to achieve special illumination effects, one or two Rolleiflash comb. extension units may be connected to the Rolleiflash. Connecting cords adding up to a total length of 33 feet (66 feet with fresh battery) may be used. Always insert flash lamps in Rolleiflash first, then in extension units, to avoid premature firing. Unnecessary battery drain will be avoided by inserting lamps just before firing and ejecting immediately afterwards.
|4. Blue flash lamps, like electronic flash, simulate daylight and are intended far use with daylight
5. The power of flash illumination decreases according to the square of the distance: i.e., an object six feet away receives only one-fourth the light as an object at three feet Distance from flash to subject must therefore be carefully considered in selecting diaphragm opening. Lamp manufacturers supply easy to use guide numbers which are divided by the distance in feet to obtain the required diaphragm opening.
6. Flash as main light source: do not take weak room illumination into account, expose strictly according to flash output.
7. Flash as fill-in light: useful in brightening shadows whether due to insufficient illumination or to the fact that the picture is being taken 'against-the-light', in full sunlight The fill-in light must be kept at a lower intensity level than the main source of illumination, otherwise the strong flash will give an unnatural effect, not at all like daylight. Too strong a flash might even cause an apparent under-exposure of the sky or the area not reached by the light. Electronic flash units are particularly well suited for use as fill-in lights when shooting color sports pictures. Use smaller lamps or keep them at greater distance.
8. When using the built-m self-timer, only X-contact is employed. It is best to use 1/30th sec. with this contact setting for most lamps.
As special landscape photos distant views covering a wide stretch of the horizon are easily possible with the panorama head. Any number of
shots, from two to a complete circle (360°) ten may be taken to form a partial or complete panoramic view. Use a sturdy tripod and carefully level
the camera by means of the spirit level provided in the panorama head. You may easily include yourself in one of the
pictures by means of the self-timer, thus adding interest in the form of a figure when none other is available. Changes in lighting must be
considered in making the separate exposures. Fast moving clouds require that the succeeding pictures be made quickly in order to get easily
matched joints. There is ample overlapping between each picture to make accurate cutting and joining easy. Of course, the prints should be well
matched In tone and contrast as well.
The possibility of cocking the shutter without advancing the film (-> p. 30) permits double or multiple exposures. Here are few trick possibilities: multiple portrait images of the same person. Pictures of 'doubles'. Penetrations: technical apparatuses in closed and open presentation.
Action studies with flash: moving machine parts in various working positrons. Publicity: photographs super-imposed on text, combinations photos.
Tone separations: multiple exposures with different filters. Time and growth studies: phototropism, crystallization. When pictures are taken from the same position: completely steady tripod, immovable position of camera. Cable release! Dark, unlighted background simplifies photographing objects which are placed side by side (reduces the danger of interfering background). To facilitate composition, fashion paper masks for ground glass.
Use extreme care in exposure when strong light contrasts prevail. In case of doubt take three shots, using the same shutter speed but varying the diaphragm a half stop an each side of the estimated exposure. Make a note of the exposure data far future aid when facing similar conditions. The slightly longer exposure will result in lighter, more transparent colors in the slides, while the shorter exposure will result in deep color effects. You may of course set the meter for a lower film sensitivity when a longer exposure is desired and far a higher DIN/ASA rating when the opposite would be better. Critical workers will carry out such a test before going on vacation and then use a batch of film with the same emulsion number. Color films should be developed as soon as possible since storing exposed films adversely affects the colors. Color conversion filters can be used to correct for the deviations that occur in daylight or studio illumination. The Rolleipol filter is used to diminish reflections and to control the tone of the blue sky (-> p. 44). Subjects with large plane areas are generally most pleasing; close-ups are most rewarding. Do not choose subjects displaying a conglomeration of harsh colors.
Color conversion filters
3. Filter -- Select the filter indicated apposite the correct temperature range (in this case, R 2). Note that table B gives correction far light value (--0.5) and the increase in required exposure (1.5 times). The guide lines hereunder listed require sliding page 55 somewhat further to the left.
|Rollei filters for black and white shots
Special compensation factors for light values are given when using filters, and these may be varied to suit type of film and lighting conditions.
Click here to see the chart for "Rollei filters for black and white shots".
Care of the Rolleiflex
A precision camera demands care in handling. Protect it against moisture, dust, sand, strong sunshine, hard blows or foils. First safeguard: the ever ready case. Proper camera protection is especially important on expeditions, in the tropics and for water sports. Use the metal ever ready case which is air-tight when closed and capable of floating. It provides sure protection against dust, humidity, splashes, windblown sand and blizzards. Carry camera around neck to minimize transportation shocks. Keep all parts clear and clean lenses with a soft camel's hair brush or doeskin. Although the mechanism is not unduly sensitive to card, some condensation may form on the lenses when the camera is brought into a warm room from outside in cold weather. Do not wipe off -- let moisture evaporate.
In Case of Damage to the Rolleiflex
Thee task of repairing major or minor damage is the special province of the expertly trained mechanic. Franke & Heidecke maintain their own special workshop in which all repairs are done with precision at nominal prices. Abroad, apply to photo dealers and factory representatives for full information.
|Click here for Focal Length and Range chart||Rollieflex 2.8E and the Practical Accessories|
Second section of camera manual - BACK TO FIRST SECTION