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To second section of Zenith EM
This handbook is primarily written and illustrated around the latest SLR camera from the USSR - the Zenith EM. Though this camera boasts many advanced features over its predecessors, the Zenith E and its earlier meterless version the Zenith B the basic instructions may be applied equally well to all models. Where any differences occur between models these have been noted, and inset illustrations provided, if necessary, in the appropriate section of the book. Though many hints and tips towards better photography have been included, this handbook should in no way be thought of as a comprehensive guide to general photographic techniques. There are numerous useful books of this type available and if you are just taking your first shaky steps in photography it would certainly benefit you to consult your local library or bookshop.
Your Zenith camera is sturdily built and will work
happily under widely varying conditions. Do remember, though, that it is
a precision-built optical instrument and should therefore be handled carefully
and protected from violent shocks, damp, dust and sand and sudden changes
of temperature. Take care of your camera and it will give you years of
reliable service and brilliant pictures. The wide range of accessories
available, particularly those from the USSR, which offer outstanding value-for-money,
enable you to cope with almost any photographic situation. You can build
up as complete a system as you need at your own pace.
To get the best possible results from your Zenith study this book thoroughly to make sure that you are familiar with the essential features of the camera before you start taking pictures. Refer back to the book any time there is something you are not sure of. Many operational features of this camera are unique and probably somewhat different from other cameras you may have owned. It is therefore strongly recommended that after carefully reading the instructions you shoot a 'test' roll of film, have this film processed, and examine the pictures before exposing additional rolls. This test roll will verify that you are using your new camera correctly and allow you to make any necessary changes in camera operation. Additionally, it will confirm that all the camera controls are functioning perfectly.
N.B. A policy of continual product development means that there may be minor differences in design or specification between your camera and these instructions.
Loading your camera ... P3
Picture-taking technique ... P7
Using your camera's built-in meter ... P8
Exposure hints ... P10
Setting camera and lens controls ... P12
Choosing shutter speeds and apertures ... P16
Viewing and focusing ... P18
Depth of field ... P20
Taking the picture ... P23
Removing exposed film ... P24
Taking flash pictures ... P26
Using the self-timer ... P29
Changing lenses ... P31
Care of camera and accessories ... P33
Trouble-shooting ... P35
Taking better pictures ... P37
Choosing lenses and accessories ... P40
The illustration/description of equipment and accessories throughout this book - is for information only and should by no means be considered an offer of sale.
24 X 36mm; using standard 35mm cassettes of 12,20 or 36 exposure. color or black and white film.
Horizontal traveling Focal Plane type, speeded 1 /30,1 /60,1/125,1/250 and 1 /500th second plus B (brief time). Linked to self-timer giving approximately 7 seconds delay.
Switch control for bulb & electronic synchronization at 1 /30th sec. through a standard 3mm co-axial socket.4www.butkus.org
Eye-level pentaprism/instant return mirror shows upright laterally correct image. Bright Fresnel focusing screen with central ground glass/microprism spot on Zenith EM. Plain fine ground screen on E & B models.
Built-in selenium cell with match-needle shutter/aperture read-out. Calibrated for: Film speeds 25-500 ASA/13-28 D I N. apertures f/2-f/32. shutter speeds 1 /500th sec. to 30 seconds.
Additive 0-36 manual resetting type.
||f/3.5 - f/16 (no click stops)|
51mm push on
36/37 mm push on
Loading your camera
(a) Your Zenith camera accepts any standard 35mm cassette, of color or black and white film.
(b) Always load the film in subdued lighting conditions. If outdoors look for a shady area or shield the camera from direct sunlight with your body or coat.
(c) Whenever possible avoid loading in a dusty place or at the seaside where strong salty wind is blowing.
(d) When loading take care not to touch the shutter blinds.4www.butkus.org
(e) Make sure Shutter Release has not been set in the 'T (or Time) Lock' position. (See p. 13).
1. Raise the Back Lock-catch  and swing the Camera Back  open.
2. Before loading ensure rewind release mechanism has been cleared.
With the EM camera the Rewind Release Ring  must be turned :clockwise
so that the three dots are fully lined up. Turn Film Transport Lever [1
] through a couple of short strokes till no further movement is possible
while holding back Sprocket wheel  lightly with finger. The Sprocket
should rotate in time with the lever action and not free-wheel.
3. Push up the Cassette Retaining Spindle  from inside the camera. Place the cassette into its chamber [ 27] ensuring that the cassette's projecting end faces down. Push Rewind Knob  back to its original position to hold the cassette in place - you may need to turn it clockwise a little until it seats properly in the cassette spool.4www.butkus.org
4. Draw out from the cassette enough film (about 3") to insert the leader into the Take-up Spool .
With the EM camera the leader can be inserted into any one of the spool's slots - with E & B cameras fix the film's leading edge under the Take-up Spool spring (turn the bottom knurled flange with finger to get this uppermost). With all models ensure that one perforation hole is caught by the Take-up Spool tooth, also see that the Sprocket wheel  engages in a perforation.
5. Make sure film cassette lies flat, then alternately depress Shutter Release Button  and turn Film Transport Lever [1 ] until perforations on both sides of film are engaged by the Sprocket Wheel . The film should also be taut around the Take-up Spool -turn bottom spool-flange with finger towards cassette position to take up any slackness.
Note - Film is advanced by sprocket drive, so it is most important for sprockets to engage film perforations properly.
6. Complete film wind, if necessary, to its limit. Press Shutter Release Button  then close the Camera Back . Firm pressure only required on the Zenith EM as the back has a self-locking catch. With E & B models this catch  must be returned manually to the locking (downward) position.
7. Take up any slackness of film within the cassette (especially important
with shorter than 36 exposure lengths) by slowly turning Rewind Knob 
clockwise till slight resistance is felt. On the Zenith B the Rewind Knob
is ready to hand. On the Zenith E & EM cameras, the Rewind Knob is
spring-loaded and recessed within the exposure meter controls.
To bring the knob into rewind position press it down firmly, twisting it slightly anti -clockwise at the same time - to re - lock the knob press down fully whilst twisting it clockwise.
8. Move Film Transport Lever (2) through two or more short strokes (letting it return to the starting position after each stroke) until no further movement is possible, watching to see if the Film Rewind Knob  turns while doing so. If the Rewind Knob turns it shows that the film is correctly loaded and moving properly through the camera. If it doesn't turn, and you have taken up the slack as described in step 7, then the film may not be securely attached to the Take-up spool or properly engaged by the Sprocket Wheels.
9. Now turn Frame Counter Dial  until the number '0' shows against
the Frame Counter Index  and press the Shutter Release  once more.
If you are not going to take photographs immediately do not wind on the film at this stage since it is always best to leave the shutter in the fired position, just in case the camera is put away without being used for some time.
10. If you are ready to take photographs, wind Film Transport Lever  fully, and your first film frame is in position, as shown by the Frame Counter Index .
(a) Always make sure the Transport Lever [1 ] has been fully wound. This is easiest when you move this lever in two short strokes. When the lever stops during the second stroke, you are assured that the camera's film, shutter and frame-counter are all ready for exposure. Failure to wind the Transport Lever fully may result in a 'blank' exposure.
(b) To maintain accuracy in use, the Frame Counter Dial  must be
zeroed only after winding the film/shutter. After this, every time you
wind on the dial will come to rest with the next division opposite the
Counter index . The counter tells you how many frames (pictures)
you have taken and when it reaches 12, 20 or 36 (depending on film in use),
you will need to rewind the film into its cassette and put in a new film.
Color film especially should not be left in the camera for long periods
and for the
best results should be processed as soon as possible after exposure. Incidentally do carry a spare film - nothing is more annoying than to run e out of film just before the best shot turns up
(c) The disc on the rewind knob of Zenith B models is there simply to remind you of the speed or type of film you are using - it has no effect on the camera mechanism what so ever. To set the reminder disc hold the rewind knob, then apply s finger or thumb pressure to the disc and turn it until the film speed or type lines up with the red mark.
Once the camera is loaded you have to consider three aspects of taking a picture exposure, focus and composition. The first two of these are purely technical; the following sections, together with a little experience, will soon enable you to handle your Zenith with sufficient enough ease to leave you free to concentrate on the third aspect, composition, which is the artistic one.
Though sometimes thought to be photography's biggest problem, obtaining correct exposure is not really so difficult thanks to the latitude of modern day films. There are three governing factors: sensitivity to light of the film (usually expressed as an ASA speed rating); shutter speed, which controls the amount of time the image is allowed to affect the film; and the lens aperture, which controls the brightness of the image falling on the film. There are two methods of obtaining the total amount of exposure required for a film of certain sensitivity under certain conditions of lighting. First is by using the exposure tables supplied with the pack of film you buy -these of course only hold good under average subject and lighting conditions, but are usually a quite accurate guide and certainly more than adequate to begin with. A better and far more accurate method (especially important with color slide films, as the slide is your final result) is to measure the brightness of a scene by means of an exposure meter.
The Zenith B owner can probably work quite happily with the first method but if preferred can always purchase a separate handheld exposure meter (our own excellent Leningrad 4, for example). For convenience and speed of use, Zenith EM and E models incorporate a sensitive built-in photoelectric meter  to help obtain correct exposure under widely varying conditions. No batteries are required since at its heart is a selenium cell that converts light reflected by your subject into electrical energy which directly activates the meter needle .
Whichever method is chosen it is recommended to use a minimum shutter speed of 1/1 25th second where possible. (certainly for the majority of outdoor subjects). This speed is fast enough to prevent most 'blur' due to camera or subject movement, yet is slow enough to permit picture taking in a wide variety of lighting conditions with today's sensitive films. If it's necessary to shoot at 1 /60th or 1 /30th second, hold the camera as steady as possible -ideally by using a tripod, or by bracing your arms on a nearby table or other support.
How to use your camera's built-in exposure meter
1. Set Film Speed - Beneath the Aperture Indicator Dial  are two scales of figures. One scale marked for films rated at 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 ASA registers in the ASA speed Indicator Window , and the other marked in DIN ratings of 13,16,19,22,25 and 28 registers in the DIN speed Indicator Window . Turn the Aperture Indicator Dial until the speed number for your film shows against the index mark in the appropriate window. Should your film be rated at an intermediate speed, simply position the ASA or DIN index mark between the next smaller and larger number (for example for a 64 or 80 ASA film set the ASA index mark between 50 and 100, for a 23 DIN film set the DIN index mark between 22 and 25). On some E and EM camera as there are dots between the marked numbers indicating these intermediate film speeds, but in any event if you do as described your meter will operate well within the exposure tolerances (latitude) of most film types.4www.butkus.org
2. Aim Exposure Meter  at your subject -
see last paragraph on page 10.
(For a practice reading aim the meter at a brightly-lit scene, or, if indoors, at a nearby lamp - making sure your fingers do not obstruct the meter window). As you do so you will note the Exposure Meter Needle  moves to a certain position and then stops. Holding your camera in this position you now . . .
3. Match the Needle  so that it is centered beneath the Meter Cursor  by turning the Shutter Speed Indicator Dial .
4. Your Light Measurement or Reading has now been taken. Each combination of lens opening (f/number) and shutter speed shown on the Aperture Indicator Dial  and Shutter Speed Indicator Dial  will give the right amount of exposure. For example in the illustration shown, these scales show that correct exposure will be obtained with a shutter speed of 1/125th of a second and at a lens opening of f/8 era speed of 1 /250th of a second and a lens opening of f/5.6 etc The combination chosen will of course depend on the subject to be photographed (see p.16) and the appropriate shutter speed and aperture should be set on the camera and the lens.
Note: Only the numbers appearing in black on the Shutter Speed Indicator Dial  can actually be set on the camera. The Red numbers 15, 8, 4 and 2, appearing next to the Black numbers 30-500, represent fractions of a second. "15" is 1 /15th second, etc. These appear for information purposes only, say for when using your camera's meter to determine exposure with cameras lacking a built-in meter. The set of Red numbers 1, 2, 4, 8,15 and 30 which are furthest from the Black numbers 30-500 on this Dial  show exposure time in whole seconds and can be used in certain circumstances
(see 'Time Exposure', p. 12) when so indicated by the exposure meter reading (See "In extremely dim light" following).
Helpful hints for better exposure
Remember that your exposure meter measures all the light that reaches its cell and 'averages out' the brightness or contrast range before giving a reading. With subjects of average contrast (e.g. scenes lit from the front, or at an angle from the side, where there are no heavy shadows and dark and bright areas are fairly balanced) the right amount of exposure is indicated automatically. However, to obtain the best results with subjects of widely varying brightness range it is wise to take a few precautions.
* If your main subject is much lighter than the background (e.g. a portrait of an illuminated face against a darkened doorway, arch or foliage) or, if it is much darker than the background (e.g. a person, boat or chalet set against a seascape or mountain scene directly lit by the sun) move right up to your main subject until it fills the viewfinder, and take a close-up reading with the exposure meter. Set the appropriate exposure combination found from this reading on your camera and lens controls before returning to the original viewpoint to take the picture.4www.butkus.org
* Take a substitute reading. Sometimes a close-up reading is not possible: if this is the case aim the exposure meter at an alternative subject of average contrast under the same lighting (the back of one's hand is a good example or ideally a sheet of neutral grey card). Again. use an appropriate combination from this reading on the camera and lens controls. Alternatively, close the lens aperture by 1 to 2 stops (f/ #'s) as compared with a straightforward meter reading of the former subject and open up the aperture by 1 to 2 stops to that indicated for the latter subject - this too will prove more correct in most circumstances of this nature.
* Always be careful to aim the exposure meter exactly in the direction of the subject. Inadvertent tilting of the camera, into the sky for example when taking landscape views, can falsify the reading and in this case lead to under-exposure. It is best to aim the meter downwards slightly when taking landscapes and similar outdoor pictures to avoid adverse influence on the reading from the bright light of the sky.
* Against the light, unless you're purposely striving after a silhouette effect, with your main subject very deep in shade against full highlight detail, then you must open the lens aperture by at least one stop to that indicated by an exposure meter reading.
* If using color slide film, avoid subjects with great brightness differences. Even a close-up reading of the shadow areas often results in excessive exposure for the sunlit areas, which then appear too light and burnt out when the slide is projected. A straightforward average brightness reading under conditions of uniform frontal or side angled lighting yields slides of good color saturation which correspond most closely to the natural color impression.
* In extremely dim lighting, the Exposure Meter Needle  may rest near the right- hand edge of the transparent window. Should this occur, place your hand close in front of the Exposure Meter Window  and watch the needle carefully. If the needle moves when you block the meter cell the exposure meter is able to function in the existing light - remove your hand and determine exposure in the normal way. However, if no needle movement occurs when you place your hand in front of the meter cell the existing light is insufficient and the exposure meter cannot be used. In this event, either a time exposure or use of a flash gun is recommended.
Setting the camera and lens controls
Lift the Shutter Speed Dial  and turn it until the required speed aligns with the index dot in the center of the dial (see p.9). Release the dial, making sure it drops fully home and is correctly lined up, and the speed will be set. Shutter speeds may be selected before or after the Film Transport Lever  has been wound. However, the following points must be observed to avoid mechanical damage: (a) Always lift the Shutter Speed Dial before turning it to another speed and lower it fully before shooting; (b) Always turn the Shutter Speed Dial to one of the marked speeds (30. 60, etc. that indicate fractions of a second, or B. that indicates a hand controlled time exposure) - NEVER to a position between marked speeds; and finally (c) DO NOT turn the Shutter Speed Dial the short distance between B and 500.
Long Exposure Times (Time Exposures)
Time exposures of one second duration or longer. enable you to take photographs in lighting conditions that would be too poor for normal picture-taking, e.g. city streets at night or dimly lit interiors. To take a time exposure with your Zenith set the Shutter Speed Dial  to B'. At this setting the Shutter will remain open for as long as the Shutter Release Button  is pressed down. A sturdy tripod is really essential for this type of work, though sometimes it is possible to find an alternative firm support (a street lamp or church pew, for example). A cable release, preferably the locking type, is also recommended for extra steadiness. If such a release is not available the shutter can be kept open for extended periods, via the 'T' lock, simply by pressing the Release Button  down firmly and turning at the same time in an anti-clockwise direction, (as seen from top of camera) until it stops.4www.butkus.org
The shutter will remain open for as long as desired and is closed on completion of exposure by pressing down the Release Button once more and returning same, clockwise, to its normal position. To reduce the risk of vibration it is recommended that a piece of black card (or even one's hat) be held in front of the lens as the Release Button is pressed and turned -the lens is then uncovered for the required time (using a stopwatch or slow count) and then recovered to end the exposure while the Release Button is returned to its normal position. Obviously this procedure only applies to long exposures of several seconds.
Note: After using the 'T' or Time lock on the Release Button always make certain that the Release Button  is turned fully clockwise and with the Zenith EM, that the Rewind Release Ring  is still turned fully clockwise and the three dots are properly aligned. This will ensure correct operation of shutter and exposure counter in subsequent pictures.
Your camera's Tripod Bush accepts a standard A," Whitworth screw. When fitting a tripod or other bush mounted accessory (e.g. flashbar) care should be taken to see that this is screwed in just finger-tight only (this applies to the carrying -case retaining-screw also). If there is a safety locking nut on the accessory, turn the main screw up to three revolutions only, then hold it in position and lock into place with the safety nut.
First the Helios 44M, the standard lens supplied with the Zenith EM camera; this is designed to be used in Automatic or Manual mode. When the Auto/Manual Switch  is set to 'A', the aperture remains fully open for viewing and focusing and closes down automatically to a pre-selected f/number value when the Shutter Release Button  is pressed down. When the Auto/Manual Switch  is set to 'M', the aperture closes down immediately to whatever f/number has been selected on the Aperture Ring . Thereafter apertures are changed manually by moving the Aperture Ring into any of its click stop' positions. Normally the lens would be used in Automatic mode, in which case the lens opening required (f/2, f/2.8, f/4, etc.) is selected b turning Aperture Ring  until that f/number (or position mid-way between marked lens openings, so indicated by the Exposure Meter Aperture Indicator Dial ) aligns with the red Distance/ Aperture Index Mark [11 ] (see p.9). As soon as pressure is taken off the Shutter Release Button, the aperture automatically returns to its wide-open position. For Zenith E & B cameras the standard lenses are the belies 44 with pre-set aperture mechanism or the lndustar 50 with a purely manual, non-click stopped mechanism.
Operation is as follows:
Helios 44 - Turn the Diaphragm setting ring (which has click-stops at full apertures) until the f/number required is set against the red index dot on the front ring of the lens. Now turn the Pre-set Diaphragm Ring until its red index dot is also aligned with the dot on the front ring and the lens is at full aperture for viewing and focusing. After focusing turn the Pre-set Ring as far as it will go in a clockwise direction (as seen from top or back of camera) - this closes the lens down to the pre-selected aperture in readiness for picture taking. With practice you do not even have to look at the lens after initially setting the aperture required - with the camera held to the eye, simply turn the Pre-set Ring fully anti-clockwise for wide aperture viewing and focusing, then turn it fully clockwise after focusing to take your picture, assured that the aperture will be closed down to its predetermined setting. You can even change apertures without taking the camera from your eye; first set the lens to full aperture, then turn Diaphragm Setting Ring each click to the left selects one larger aperture, each click to the right selects one smaller aperture. Remember of course to close down to the newly selected aperture with the Pre-set Ring as previously described.
Industar 50 -Turn the Diaphragm Setting Ring at the front of the lens until its index dot aligns with the figure 3.5 on the Diaphragm Scale, viewing and focusing at eye level. You must now take the camera away from your eye, since the aperture required for picture taking can only be set after focusing (it is usually too difficult to see or focus clearly when the lens is closed down, since less light enters the viewfinder).4www.butkus.org
Choosing shutter speeds and lens openings
As seen from an earlier illustration, your exposure meter indicates various combinations of shutter speed and aperture that will each produce good results under given conditions of lighting and film sensitivity. However, you will often need to select a particular shutter speed or aperture to suit your subject so how do you choose ? For example, the suggested shutter speed of 1/125th second, while fast enough to stop most normal subject movement (people walking etc.), would not be enough to freeze the really fast action of subjects such as children at play, sports events or racing cars- here a speed of 1 /250th or 1 /500th second would be best.
Again, if taking a landscape type picture, a small aperture of say f/11 or f/16 would be needed to obtain maximum sharpness (see Depth of Field). Summarizing then; with moving subjects, choice of shutter speeds is of most importance, to stop the motion use the fastest speed possible that lighting conditions will allow; where you need your subject to be sharp over a long range from foreground to background, then choosing a small lens aperture is more important. It's worth knowing too the relationship between shutter speed and aperture settings (especially important if using exposure tables, as these generally detail changes of aperture according to lighting conditions at a fixed shutter speed - most commonly our suggested 1/125th second). These settings are so designed that altering from one figure to another on either scale, will double or halve the amount of light reaching the film. An aperture of f/5.6 is wider than, and will transmit twice as much light as, an aperture of f/8. and at the sometime is smaller than. and will transmit half as much light as, an aperture of f/4. Likewise a shutter speed of 1/125th second is slower than, and will transmit twice as much light as, a speed of 1 /250th and is at the same time faster than, and will transmit half the amount of light as, a speed of 1 /60th second. Thus if you start from a given combination, say 1/125th at f/8, and you decide that a shutter speed of 1 /250th would be better for the subject and you want to finish up with the same amount of exposure, you will need to compensate for the fact that only half the necessary light is reaching the film by opening the aperture one division to f/5.6. If you had decided that 1 /500th were the best speed you would need to open the aperture by two divisions (from f/8 to f/4) since 1/500th is two divisions up from, or a quarter the speed of, 1/125th second. Remember though that all combinations of shutter speed and aperture are a compromise. There is really no 'correct' exposure for any subject. it all depends on the effect you want.
Viewing and focusing
First make sure your lens is securely attached to the camera by turning
it clockwise until no further movement is possible.
Look through the viewfinder eyepiece  and you can feel safe in the knowledge that there'll be no parallax problems (no more cut-off heads in close-up portraits and the like) as you are viewing and focusing, by means of a ground-glass screen,
through the actual lens that takes the finished picture. There's a built-in safety margin of course, in common with many other modern single lens reflex cameras, the viewfinder showing an overall area some what smaller than the total film area. This ensures that everything you see in the viewfinder appears in the finished picture despite the fact that slide mounts and masks in printing equipment actually cover part of the film's image.
Focusing should always be carried out with the aperture wide open, unless of course you want to preview 'depth-of-field', so follow the previous instructions concerning aperture operation for the three standard lenses. With the camera held to your eye turn the Focusing Ring  towards the right for close distances or towards the left for far distances, until the subject is sharp and clear on the large ground-glass screen. The Zenith EM camera has in addition in the center of its screen, two aids for speedier critical focusing, a microprism spot which is composed of literally hundreds of tiny prisms that distort and accentuate an out-of-focus image. Simply focus the lens until you obtain a single undistorted image at the center and you are at the point of sharpest focus. This microprism works well for the majority of subjects and conditions but for subjects lacking in contrast or color the fine ground-glass collar around the central spot is probably more helpful - it's quite handy when using long telephoto and wide angle lenses too. (Aim your camera at this instruction book from about 2 feet away and you'll see how these focusing aids work). You can of course also use the Distance Scale  of your lens, which is calibrated in metros, to set the focus. Generally there's no need to check distance, it's almost always easier to use the viewfinder; the only time it becomes necessary is when taking flash pictures (see p. 26) or when 'depth -of-field' is important.
* The Red 'R' just to the right of the Distance Indicator  on the Helios 44M shows the correction required for infra-red films. When using infra-red films, first focus in the normal manner, and note the indicated distance. Then move the Focusing Ring  so that that distance is now aligned with the Red 'R'. Remember - this is needed only when using infra-red films which are sensitive to light rays which focus at a slightly different plane than ordinary light rays.
* A 16mm diameter prescription lens can be inserted into the Viewfinder Eyepiece  and held in place by Retaining Ring . Spectacle wearers may find this helpful for critical work.
On certain E/EM models the detachable Retaining Ring (31) has been replaced by an optional 'slip-on' holder. If difficulty is experienced in obtaining either of these accessories we recommend you contact Visual Aids, East Street, Bromley, Kent, BR1 1QX.
All photographic lenses, when focused on a given subject, will show some objects in front of and behind that subject more or less sharply. This 'range' of extra sharpness is called 'depth-of-field' and varies with different lenses; it's greatest with wide-angle lenses, and least with telephoto lenses. With any lens, you'll find your depth-of-field is always greater (more things in focus) at small lens apertures such as f/11 or f/16 and lesser (fewer things in focus) at larger lens apertures such as f/3.5, f/2.8 or f/2. Depth -of -field is also greater in cases of more distant subjects than it is with close-up subjects and increases nearly twice as much beyond the subject. your main point of focus, than it does in front of the subject (towards the camera).
If your picture is such that you want both nearby and distant objects to be in sharp focus then generally the smallest possible aperture should be used. However, the aesthetic quality of a picture can often be improved by having the principal subject in sharp focus while other objects in the scene are soft and out-of-focus. Here a larger aperture is necessary to produce the 'differential focus' that de-emphasizes distracting background and/or foreground detail and thus isolates, and concentrates your viewer's attention on, the principal subject.
You may want to 'preview' depth -of -field prior to exposure. This can
be done in two ways, first by pressing the Shutter Release Button  smoothly
until it reaches the definite stopping point, just before firing the shutter.
This closes the aperture
down to its pre-set value and enables you to get an idea (despite the dimness) of what will or will not be sharp - the final photograph will be at least as sharp if not sharper than the viewfinder image. The second method is to turn the Auto/Manual Switch  to the M position which has the effect of manually closing the aperture down to the pre-selected lens opening-this is probably easier to master than the first method but you must remember to return the Switch after use to the 'A' position ready for normal operation. With the Hellos and industar 50 lenses, follow the previous instructions regarding aperture operation and
you'll see that even though they lack the automatic aperture closing feature, depth-of-field can still be previewed prior to taking the picture.
Using the depth-of-field scale 
The scale consists of the aperture numbers repeated each side of the Distance Index [11 ] and shows, at any given focus distance, the nearest limits and furthest limits of acceptable sharpness. Taking the Hellos 44M lens as an example, if this is focused at 4 metros, the depth -of-field stretches from 3 meters to 6 meters at an aperture of f/5.6 while at an aperture of f/16 objects from 2 meters to infinity ( ) will be acceptably sharp in the final picture. Note: For the sake of reading clarity some figures are omitted from the scale; however, it's a simple matter to 'fill in' those missing if you remember they follow the aperture sequence exactly, with those proceeding left from the index  showing the near limits of sharpness and those proceeding right showing the far limits. Now for some practical examples
(a) You're taking a landscape view where you want everything needle
sharp from the foreground all the way to the background. Easy you say,
close the aperture right down to f/1 6 - the snag is that the sky has clouded
over and the light is too poor to use
this aperture at a reasonable shutter speed. The remedy obtain the maximum depth-of-field required with the minimum of 'stopping-down' (decreasing aperture size). Focus through the viewfinder on the closest object and note the distance (say 3m) registered against the Index , then focus on the most distant part of your subject and note this distance (say 10m) also. Now look at your lens and move the Focusing Ring  until both distances appear just between an identical pair of aperture numbers (f/8. in above example), on the Depth -of- Field scale . Set the lens to the aperture thus found, use your exposure meter to determine the correct shutter speed for an exposure at this aperture, then set this speed on the Shutter Speed Dial . Everything between the two distances (3 to 10 metros) shown by the matching aperture numbers (f/8) on the Depth-of-Field scale  will appear sharp in the final photograph.
(b) If you need absolute maximum depth-of-field at any given aperture focus on the 'hyperfocal distance'. This is found by aligning the infinity mark ( ) against the Distance Index . The distance then found to be aligning with the near limit of depth-of-field for the aperture required will be the 'hyperfocal distance'. If the lens is now refocused so that this distance aligns with the Index  everything will be sharp from half the f distance to infinity.
(c) To obtain a 'differential focus effect, determine the closest and
most distant parts of your subject as described in example (a) above, then
refocus the lens so that the distance of the important part of your subject
aligns with, or is near to, either the near or far limits (according to
whether you want foreground or background out-of-focus) on the Depth-of-Field
scale  when using a largish aperture, say f/4. Set lens and camera
controls as necessary and you'll be assured of obtaining a picture of high
Here we can see that the 10 meter focal setting is in fact the hyperfocal distance for an aperture of f/8 which gives us the maximum depth-of-field possible from that lens, extending from half that distance (5 metros) to infinity.
Taking the picture
Poor first-time results are largely attributable to camera shake, so it's very important to ho/d the camera steady using both hands. You will probably find it most convenient to grip the camera firmly with your right hand and fire the Shutter Release Button with your right fore-finger This way your left hand can easily turn the Focusing Ring and give extra support at the same time. Always press the Shutter Release Button downwards smoothly and firmly - NEVER jab at it (On the Zenith EM make sure you do not accidentally restrict movement of the Shutter Speed Dial while depressing the Release Button)
For each Successive Exposure . . . just move the Transport Lever until fully wound and you're ready for your next shot. If lighting conditions have not changed it is only necessary to frame the subject, focus and fire the shutter. If taking a photograph in a slightly different direction or if the sun clouds over, take a further meter reading or consult film exposure tables and make any adjustments to camera and lens controls that might become necessary before firing the shutter.
Note: the extra support the left hand gives without obstructing Meter Window  Note also 'correct' finger position f or smooth release of shutter.
NOTE. Keep an eye on the Frame Counter . When this registers a figure indicating that the entire length of film has been exposed, or if the Film Transport Lever cannot be turned, it is time to rewind the film into its cassette ready for processing. DO NOT try to get an extra exposure if the Transport Lever is wound forcibly the film may be damaged and disengage from the cassette making it impossible to rewind.
Removing exposed film
(1 ) Before attempting to rewind a film put the cap. supplied with your camera, back on the lens. This is simply a precautionary measure to prevent any portion of the last frame being exposed to light, since the Rewind Release has the effect of firing the shutter even if, as sometimes happens, the Transport Lever is only partly wound when the end of the film has been reached.
(2) Releasing the film for rewinding. Zenith E and B models have a Rewind Button (see below) which must be pressed and held down firmly during the entire rewinding operation. The Zenith EM has a locking device which permits rewinding without constant application of pressure. To engage it first press the Shutter Release Button  then turn the Rewind Release Ring  folly anti-clockwise. Make sure the Ring is turned until no further movement is possible and you'll then be able to rewind the whole film quite freely.
(3) Rewinding. The Rewind Knob  should be gripped firmly and rotated in a clockwise direction (as indicated by the engraved arrow). While resistance is felt you are rewinding the film back into the cassette (the knob will turn freely without resistance when the film has been fully rewound).
Zenith EM rewind release
* On Zenith B models the Rewind Knob is ready to hand. On Zenith EM and E models it is spring-loaded and recessed within the exposure meter controls and must there fore be raised first into rewind position by gently pressing against the top of the knob and turning it anti-clockwise at the same time.
Remember the Rewind Release Button on Zenith E and B models must be held down firmly until the film has been fully rewound.
(4) Having rewound the film, remove the camera from its case, raise the Back Catch  and swing the Camera Back  open. Pull the Rewind Knob  upwards fully and take the cassette of exposed film out of its Chamber . Your film is now ready for processing.
(5) The camera can now be reloaded (after observing precautions on p. 6). If you don't want to reload till a later date return the Rewind Knob to its 'closed' position.
To second section of Zenith EM