Sears KS-1000
AKS Ricoh XR-1
Posted 3-7-'04

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CONTENTS

Description of parts .................................... ;                                 2
Specifications .............................................................................. 4
How to use your camera ................................................................ 6
1. Inserting and checking the batteries ..................................... 8
2. Loading the film ............................................................... 10
3. Setting the film speed ....................................................... 13
4. Selecting the shutter speed ............................................... 14
5. Meter/shutter "on-off" control ............................................. 16
6. Setting the aperture........................................................... 17
7. The correct exposure ........................................................ 18
8. Viewing and focusing.......................................................... 22
9. Depth of field ..................................................................... 23
10. Infrared photography...................................................... ... 25
11. Holding the camera ............................................................ 26
12. Changing lenses................................................................. 27
13. Using self-timer.................................................................. 29
14. Using auto winder ............................................................... 30
15. Unloading film .................................................................... 30
16. Multiple exposures.............................................................. 31
17. Flash photography .............................................................. 32
18. Trouble shooting your camera .............................................. 35
19. Proper care of your camera .................................................. 37

CONGRATULATIONS 
ou have just purchased a fine camera that will give you many years of picture-taking pleasure. The KS 1000 is a 35 mm SLR camera which assures you of superb optics, outstanding mechanical performance and reliability which will justify your choice for years to come. 

Before using your KS 1000
 Please read this instruction booklet carefully and familiarize yourself with the equipment and its features thoroughly. Your pleasure in using your KS 1000 will be greater if you know your camera properly. DESCRIPTION OF PARTS

1. Film Rewind Knob/Back Cover Lock Release
2. Film Rewind Crank
3. Film Speed Dial (ASA/DIN)
4. Film Speed Lock Button
5. Flash Ready Signal Contact
6. Hot Shoe/Flash Contact
7. Shutter Speed Index Line
8. Shutter Speed Dial
9. Cable Release Socket
10. Shutter Release Button
11. Meter/Shutter "ON-OFF" Index Mark 
12. Film Advance Lever 
13. Battery Check Ring 
14. Exposure Counter 
15. Neck Strap Eyelet 
16. Self-timer Lever
17. Depth of Field Preview Button 
18. Lens Release Lever 
19. Lens Locator Node 

 

20. Focusing Ring 
21. Distance Scale 
22. Depth of Field Scale 
23. F-Stop Ring
24. Aperture Relay Port
25. Sprocket Teeth
26. Multi-exposure Button
27. Multi-exposure Lock Lever 
28. Viewfinder Eyepiece 29. Flash LED
30. Film Rail
31. "X"" Flash Terminal 
32. Film Rewind Shaft 
33. Film Chamber 
34. Battery Compartment Cover 
35. Tripod Socket 
36. Winder Contacts 

 

37. Shutter Release Connection 
38. Film Rewind Release Button 
39. Film Take-up Spool 40. Winder Coupler 
41. Positioning Hole 
42. Back Cover
43. Film Pressure Plate (In the Viewfinder) 
44. Microprism-image Band 
45. Split-image Spot 
46. Exposure Meter Needle 
47. Shutter Speed Indicator 
48. Battery Power Check Mark "C"
49. Aperture Readout Window 

 

  SPECIFICATIONS: Sears KS 1000

CAMERA TYPE........................................................ 35 mm SLR with metal focal plane shutter.

FILM FORMAT ........................................................ 24 x 36 mm

FILM SIZE AND CAPACITY.................................... 35 mm perforated film in 12, 20, 24 or 36 exposures.

STANDARD LENS ...................................................... 50 mm Auto Sears MC f/1.7 (Multi-coated), 5 groups, 6 elements Filter size: 52 mm screw-in type

LENS MOUNT ........................................................... "K" type bayonet with 65° rotating angle

SHUTTER................................................................... Vertically moving Copal FC-523 metal focal plane shutter with speeds from 1 to 1/1000 sec. plus B.

VIEWFINDER.............................................................. Fixed eye-level pentaprism, F-stop, shutter speeds, "B" (bulb), exposure meter needle (also acts as battery checker), shutter speed indicator and battery check mark visible. Viewing magnification 0.88X. Field of view covers 93% of actual picture area.

FOCUSING ............................................................... Diagonal split-image spot in microprism band surrounded by Fresnel field.

EXPOSURE METER .................................................. Three CdS photocells TTL full open metering for center-weighted average light reading coupled to shutter speeds, film speeds and f-stops.

EXPOSURE COUPLING RANGE................................ EV3.5 to 18 (ASA 100 film with 50 mm f/1.7 lens)

FILM SPEED RANGE ................................................ ASA 12 to 3200 (DIN 12 to 36)

EXPOSURE METER POWER SUPPLY ...................... Two 1.5V silver-oxide batteries, Mallory MS76, Eveready S76 or equivalent).

FLASH SYNCHRONIZATION .................................... X Synchronization for electronic flash unit at "B" and 1 sec. to 1/125 sec.

FLASH TERMINAL.................................................... "X" flash terminal. "X" contact (with electric shock prevention mechanism) on hot shoe for cordless elec­tronic flash unit.

FILM LOADING ........................................................ Multi-slit easy loading.

FILM WIND................................................................ Single stroke film advance lever with 135° winding angle (40° play).

FILM REWIND........................................................... Engage film rewind by pressing film rewind button on base of camera.

EXPOSURE COUNTER.............................................. Additive, automatic resetting.

OTHER FEATURES ................................................... Self-timer, Hot shoe, Depth of field preview button, Shutter release lock (with film advance lever) Meter on/off switch (with film advance lever) Battery check ring (around shutter release button) Multi-exposure button, ASA/DIN dial lock Cable release socket Tripod socket

DIMENSIONS ............................................................ (Body only) Width:139.9 mm (5.51 inch),  Height:91.3 mm (3.59 inch) 
Thickness: 48.0 mm (1.89 inch)

WEIGHT .................................................................... (Body only) 550 g (19.59 oz)   

 

HOW TO USE YOUR CAMERA
1. Insert
an Eveready S-76 battery (or equivalent).


2. Load the film.

Pull up the rewind knob to open the film compartment door, drop in the film cartridge and push down the knob, turning it until it drops into place. Insert the end of the film leader into the film take-up spool, making sure the perforations along the film edge are hooked onto the teeth of the sprocket. Close the film compartment door and advance the film and press the shutter button repeatedly until the number "1" appears in the exposure counter window.

3. Set the film speed. Depress film speed lock button and rotate the outer ring of film speed dial until the ASA/DIN number of the film you are using is exactly opposite the index line on outer ring of film speed dial and click stops.

4. Set the shutter speed.

When outdoors in bright or hazy sunlight, 1/125 second is generally suitable for most photographs. When indoors in a well lit room, 1/60 second should be sufficient to capture you subject, depending upon the film you are using.


5. Set the aperture.

Rotate f-stop ring until desired f-stop is opposite the aperture index line. F-stop selected determines amount of light entering the lens.


6.
Focus on your subject.

Rotate the focusing ring until the split image in the slit image spot forms a single image or until the image in the microprism-image band appears sharp.


7. Turn on the exposure meter.

By pulling the film advance lever away from the camera body approximately 1/2 inch.


8. Set the exposure.

Align the exposure meter needle with shutter speed indicator in the viewfinder by turning the aperture ring or the shutter speed dial.


9.
Compose your picture and press the shutter release button. 

1. INSERTING AND CHECKING THE BATTERIES

Remove battery compartment cover by unscrewing it counterclock­wise with a coin.

Place two batteries into the compartment with the plus Q+ side down, as illustrated in the battery holder of battery compartment cover. Make sure that the batteries are correctly placed. If incorrectly plac­ed, the exposure meter needle in the viewfinder will not move at all. Replace battery compartment cover by screwing it clockwise until it stops, but do not force.

 

Tips for Better Results:

·      Before loading, wipe off the surfaces of the batteries with a clean and dry cloth to ensure they are free of fingerprints or stains.

·     When your camera is not used for a long period, remove the batteries and keep them in a cool, dry place.

·      Replace the batteries about once a year.

·      Do not dispose of batteries in fire-they may explode.

Check the power of the batteries after loading them. Turn the battery check ring clockwise until it stops.

If exposure meter needle in the viewfinder swings to battery power check mark "C", the batteries have sufficient power. If the needle doesn't move or stays below check mark "C" the batteries must be replaced. For replacement use Mallory MS76, Eveready S76 or equivalent.

2. LOADING THE FILM

Pull up film rewind knob until back cover snaps open. Then, pull it out ill the way to allow for insertion of the film cartridge. Swing open back cover and place a film cartridge into film chamber. 
Push down film rewind knob to its original position by turning film rewind crank clockwise or counterclockwise so that film rewind shaft engages film cartridge and locks it in place.

 

Insert the film leader into one of the slots in the film take-up spool. To bring the slot into a convenient position, rotate film take-up spool in the direction of arrow with your finger.

 

Rotate film taste-up spool by advancing film advance lever to take up any slack in the film. Be sure film tip is firmly hooked onto film take-up spool and that the holes on both sides of the film are caught by the teeth on the film transport sprockets.

NOTE: The film must pass under the take-up spool when advanced.

Close and press back cover firmly until it snaps shut. Advance film advance lever two or three times, after depressing shutter release button each time, until the number "1" is opposite the index line in exposure counter. As you advance film advance lever, film rewind knob will simultaneously rotate counterclockwise indicating that the film is properly advanced. Your camera is now loaded and ready to go.

Tips for Better Results:
* Always load your camera in the shade or in a poorly-lit place. Never in direct sunlight or other bright light.

3. SETTING THE FILM SPEED

Each type of film, color or black and white, has its own sensitivity to light. This sensitivity is assigned by a numerical value described as a ASA rating (U.S.A. Standard) or a DIN rating (Europe and most other countries). In most cases, both ASA and DIN ratings are imprinted on the film package, as well as the data sheet packed with the film and the film cartridge itself. The higher the film speed rating, the more sensitive the film is to light; that is, less light is required for a proper exposure. The film speed, therefore, is an important element in insuring that the through-the-lens metering system of your camera determines the correct shutter speed and f-stop combinations for a given lighting situation.

Depress film speed lock button and rotate the outer ring of film speed dial until the ASA (or DIN) number of your film is exactly opposite the index line on the outer ring of film speed dial and click stops. For example, if the film is ASA 100, make the correct setting at "100". Take your finger off film speed lock button to lock the film speed setting in the camera. Below is a table of the available ASA/DIN ratings with the numbers represented by the dots shown above them.


Tips for Better Results:


* Each time a film with a new film speed rating is loaded in your camera, the film speed must be set to assure accurately exposed photographs.

4. SELECTING THE SHUTTER SPEED
The shutter controls the length of time the light is allowed to strike the film. The speed at which the shutter opens and closes measured in fractions of a second that correspond to the numbers c shutter speed dial. For example, "1000" is 1/1000 sec., "125" 1/125 sec., "4" is 1/4 sec., "1" is one full second and so on.
 Simply turn shutter speed dial until the desired shutter speed is opposite shutter speed index line.

Generally speaking, when shooting outdoors in bright or hazy sunlight, "125" (1/125 sec.) is suitable for most pictures. When taking your subjects in motion "250" '1/250 sec.) to "1000" (1/1000 sec.) should be used ... faster speeds will "freeze" extremely fast moving subjects (sports, racing cars, etc.) When indoors in a well-lit room, "60" (1/60 sec.) should be sufficient to take your subject, depending upon the film you are using. When in poorly-lit places, or to achieve the maximum depth of field, "30" (1/30 sec.) to "1" (1 sec.) should be used. When set at "B", the shutter will remain open as long as shutter release button is depressed (preferably by a cable release). The "B" setting is used for long night exposures using street lights or electric signs as a light source, or under poor lighting conditions when flash cannot be used.  
 Tips for Better Results:

·     When using slow speeds (below 1/30 sec.) and "B" setting, use a tripod and cable release to minimize camera movement and prevent blurred pictures. Be especially careful to minimize camera movement when using a telephoto lens.

·     Do not set shutter speed dial between marked speeds, but only at a click stop in accordance with indicated speeds.

·      Shutter speed dial does not revolve between "1000" and "B".


5. METER/SHUTTER "ON-OFF" CONTROL

Film advance lever controls exposure meter "ON-OFF" and shutter( release "LOCK-UNLOCK" to protect your camera from unnecessary depletion of the batteries and accidental shutter release when not taking pictures.  pre-advance with two click positions in 20° an 40° angle and 135° advance angle assures faster winding and permit continuous operation for sequence photography. Choose your suitable angle of 20° or 40° pre-advance position. When film advance lever is moved to "ON" position, the electric circuit is switched on and shutter release button is unlocked.



Whenever picture-taking is completed, be sure to move film advance lever to "OFF" position. The electric circuit is switched off an shutter release
button is locked.

 

6. SETTING THE APERTURE

The lens opening determines the amount of light entering the lens and exposing the film. The smaller the f-stop (f/2.0, f/2.8, etc.) the wider he lens opening and the greater the amount of light entering the lens. The larger the f-stop (f/16, f/11, etc.) the smaller the lens opening and the smaller the amount of light entering the lens. As the lens opening is moved from f/16 to f/11, the amount of light entering he lens is doubled. As the lens opening is moved from f/2.0 to f/2.8 he amount of entering light is cut in half. Rotate f-stop ring until the desired f-stop is opposite the aperture index line. Click stops are provided to prevent accidental movement from the setting made. If necessary, you may set f-stop ring between two f-stops.

7. THE CORRECT EXPOSURE

Your KS 1000 has a built-in through-the-lens full aperture CdS exposure meter which measures the light coming through the lens and enables you to set the proper exposure for a given lighting condition. The correct exposure is obtained by setting the shutter speed and f-stop (aperture) in the correct combination for the film, subject and lighting conditions.

Set the desired shutter speed opposite shutter speed index line by rotating shutter speed dial (Read "SELECTING THE SHUTTER SPEED"). Shutter speed indicator in the viewfinder indicates the shutter speed you just set.

 Move film advance lever to "ON" position.

 Hold your camera, look at your subject through the view eyepiece and check exposure meter needle.

Rotate f-stop (lens opening) ring and align exposure meter needle with shutter speed indicator. F-stop is visible through aperture readout window. If exposure meter needle goes above shutter speed indicator, this means "overexposure"; select a faster shutter speed or a smaller lens opening. On the contrary, if the needle goes below shutter speed indicator, this means "under-exposure"; choose a slower shutter or a larger lens opening.

 

 

If you want to use a specific f-stop for depth of field control, you may set the f-stop first and then the shutter speed, while other procedures are the same as above. How your subject turns out in the picture depends on the f-stop setting (Refer to "DEPTH OF FIELD"). The chart shows the exposure value range (shutter speed and f-stop combinations) of your camera's metering system for selected film speeds.

Exposure Compensation:

Though you learned how correct exposure is obtained, in unusual lighting conditions, the desired effect or the correct exposure will not be obtained in the final picture and exposure compensation is necessary.

Back-lit Subjects (when the light is behind the subjects):
1. Move close to the subject for meter reading, then, move back, focus and shoot.
2. If it is impossible to approach the subject, adjust either shutter speed or lens opening to overexposure. When you adjust the lens opening, open up the aperture by 1 or 2 stops.

Spot-lighted Subjects and Dark Backgrounds:

1. Move close to the subject for meter reading, then move back, focus and shoot.

2. If it is impossible to approach the subject, adjust either shutter speed or lens opening to underexposure. When you adjust the lens opening, close down the aperture by 1 or 2 stops.

Tips for Better Results:

·      When the shutter speed dial is set at "B" (Bulb), se the desired f-stop and expose manually because metering with the built-in exposure meter is not possible.

·      Do not make an exposure setting by pressing depth of field preview button or turning battery check ring because these will incorrectly influence the meter's reading

·      Outside of the meter's coupling range, the exposure meter will not respond correctly. For example, coupling range for ASA 100 film is from 1/4 sec. at f/1.4 to 1/1000 sec. at f/16 (EV3 - 18). If the light is too dim, use supplementary lighting.   

8. VIEWING AND FOCUSING
Since you are viewing through the lens, there is no parallax problem... what you are viewing in the viewfinder is exactly what will appear in the final photograph. This enables you to determine the exact com­position of your subjects before pressing shutter release button. Even when you shoot close-ups, these is no danger of accidentally cutting off a portion of your picture

. To assure the sharpest possible pictures, your KS 1000 has a three way focusing screen with diagonal split-i­mage spot, microprism-image band and fresnel field... select accor­ding to your subject.

 Look into viewfinder eyepiece to compose your picture.

 Split-image focusing is helpful for the subject with either vertical or horizontal lines. Rotate focusing ring until the split image in split-i­mage spot forms a single image. When it is out of focus, your subject is split in two parts.

Microprism focusing is good for the subject which lacks clear verti­cal or horizontal lines. Rotate focusing ring until the image in micro­prism-image band appears sharp.

You can also focus with any part of the area surrounding microprism-image band. This is most useful when taking pictures with ultra telephoto lenses or in close-up photography with bellows unit, macro lenses or extension rings because the other focusing aids may darken appreciably.

9. DEPTH OF FIELD

When you focus on a specific subject, an area in front of and behind the subject will appear acceptably sharp in your picture. This area of acceptable sharpness is called "Depth of Field". The depth of field is determined by the f-stop you select and the distance from the in-fo­cus subject to the film plane. As you get closer to your subject, or as you open your lens (for example, from f/16 to f/2.8(, the depth of field becomes shallower. By stopping the lens down (for example, from f/2.8 to f/16(, the depth of field becomes deeper. Knowing how to use depth-of-field allows the photographer to use the principles of "­selective focus" to eliminate unwanted foreground and background objects from his photographs, and could mean the difference bet­ween a snapshot and a successful photograph. The depth of field can be pre-determined in the following ways:

Depth of Field Preview Button:

Pressing depth of field preview button will set the lens at the corre­sponding opening you previously set on f-stop ring. This will enable you to preview the area of acceptable sharpness in the picture you take. The viewfinder will become dark corresponding to the f-stop you previously set on f-stop ring. Depth of field preview button will automatically return to its original position when you release it and the viewfinder will become as bright as before.

Depth of Field Scale:

After you have set the lens opening and have focused the camera, the area of acceptable sharpness in front of and behind your subject can also be determined on depth of field scale. Locate on depth of field scale the two numbers corresponding to the f-stop you have set on f­stop ring.

The distance between these two f-stops on distance scale will be an area of acceptable sharpness in your picture. For example, if your lens is focused at 3 meters (10 ft.) and you shoot at 8 (f/8), the area of acceptable sharpness will be from 2.2 m (7.3 ft.) to 5 m (16.5 ft), by reading distance scale opposite both sides of the number "8" on the depth of field scale.

 

Tips for Better Results:

* Do not depress the shutter release button when depressing depth of field preview button.

10. INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY

For infrared photography using infrared films, a correction of distance scale is necessary because infrared light waves focus on a plane slightly behind that of visible light. When using infrared film you can compensate for this difference by focusing slightly behind your subject.

First focus normally on your subject and note the camera-to-subject distance opposite the distance index line on distance scale. Turn fo­cusing ring until this camera-to-subject distance setting is opposite the infrared index line. For example, if distance scale reads 5 m (16.5 ft) after focusing, merely shift the "5" (16) scale to the "•" (red) posi­tion.

 Tips for Better Results:

* Infrared radiation varies with the degree of infrared light rays in the atmosphere.

* For exposure, follow the instruction sheets which are packed with the film.      

11. HOLDING THE CAMERA

Support the camera in the palm of the left hand, with the thumb and forefinger gripping the focusing ring.

The palm of the right hand should fit against the right side of the ca­mera body with the forefinger resting near the shutter release button and the thumb on the camera back.

Look through the viewfinder with the camera resting against the fore­head to help steady it, and the left elbow held in against the body.

As a general rule, the camera should not be hand held at shutter speeds slower than 1/60 second. This becomes particularly impor­tant when using lenses of longer than normal focal length, where it may be necessary to use even faster speeds to eliminate camera mo­vement. At speeds slower than 1/60, a tripod is a must for the shar­pest photographs.

IMPORTANT: When attaching the camera to a tripod that has a long attachment screw, adjust the screw to less than 1/4 inch to prevent damage to the interior of the ca­mera body.

12. CHANGING LENSES - This is a standard K-mount lens

To mount the lens on the camera:
Mount the lens by lining up the red dot on the lens mount with the matching dot on the camera mount. Grasp the lens firmly around the lens barrel and turn it clockwise until it clicks into place.

To remove the lens from the camera:

Grasp the lens firmly around the lens barrel in one hand. With the other hand, hold the camera body and press lens release lever and turn the lens counterclockwise until it stops. The lens now can be re­moved.

 You can also change lenses easily without looking, even in the dark, by means of lens locator node. Line up lens locator node with lens re­lease lever and turn the lens clockwise for mounting the lens. For re­moving the lens, press lens release lever and turn the lens counter­clockwise until lens locator node and lens release lever line up.

Tips for Better` Results:

·     Whenever a lens is mounted on the camera, make sure that the lens is perfectly mounted.

·     Do not touch any of the internal parts or permit dust or dirt to en­ter the camera body when removing or attaching lenses.

·     Protect the inside of the camera by putting on the body cap whe­never the camera is carried or kept with the lens removed.

NOTE: A wide range of Sears interchangeable lenses including extremely wide angle lenses, telephoto lenses and zoom lenses are available to enable you to expand the pleasure of your picture-taking. Since the camera is designed to accept any lens with the "K" type bayonet mount, your KS 1000 affords you the opportunity to select any interchangeable lens or ac­cessory of the "K" type bayonet mount available on the market.

13. USING SELF-TIMER

Your KS 1000 has a built-in self-timer which delays the shutter re­lease a maximum of 10 seconds. This enables you to include yourself in your own pictures and is also of benefit in taking close-ups or pho­tomicrographs where camera movement must be avoided.

First, advance film advance lever. Then move self-timer lever coun­terclockwise. According to the degree you have moved it, you can adjust the operating time. For the maximum delay, move it until it stops. Press shutter release button to start the self-timer moving.

 Tips for Better Results:

·      You can set self-timer lever first, if you wish, and then advance film advance lever.

·     The camera should be placed on a tripod or other sturdy support when using self-timer.

·     When using a tripod with a long thread length (more than 5.7 mm), be careful not to forcibly screw in the thread further than the depth of the socket.

·     Turn the self-timer lever to the original position with your finger to disengage the self-timer setting.  

14. USING AUTO WINDER

The Sears KS Autowinder can be used with the KS-1000 and KS Auto cameras. By operating the shutter release button on, the winder, it can be used for rapid sequence photography at ap­proximate 2 frames per second (at shutter speed 1/125 sec.). By first setting the selection switch you may choose frame-by-frame shots or rapid sequence shots according to your needs. You can for instance capture the rapid movement in sports, or the fleeting facial ex­pressions that make your picture-taking a more enjoyable experience

15. UNLOADING FILM
 

After the last picture on the roll of film has been taken, rewind the film and unload your camera as follows:

Press film rewind release button.

Lift up film rewind crank and turn it clockwise until film rewind release button stops revolving and you feel the film tension released. This indicates that the film has been completely rewound into the car­tridge.

Open back cover by pulling up film rewind knob.

 

 

Remove the film cartridge and have the film processed as soon as possible.

Tips for Better Result:

·    Always unload your camera in the shade or in a poorly-lit place, never in direct sunlight or other bright light.

·     When you reach the end of the roll of film, film advance lever will tighten and refuse to advance. If this happens, do not advance film advance lever by force for "just one more shot", otherwise the film will be torn out of the cartridge.

·      Film rewind release button will remain in place once it is pressed, and return automatically to its original position when film ad­vance lever is advanced.

 

16. MULTIPLE EXPOSURES

Your KS 1000 has a multi-exposure device which allows you to make double exposures for special effect and lots of creative fun. 
Make the first picture in the normal way.  Release the lock by sliding the multi-exposure Lock Lever to the left until the red dot appears.

For the second exposure, advance film advance lever while pressing multi-exposure button firmly with the other hand. This will set the shutter for the second exposure without advancing the film and exposure counter.


When multi-exposure shots are not required, be sure to lock the multi-exposure Button by sliding the Multi-exposure Lock Lever towards the right until the red dot disappears.

 

Tips for Better Results:

·      Good results in multi-exposure depend on careful shutter speed and lens opening setting. This means, in order to prevent overex­posure of the final picture, we suggest that the first picture should be underexposed by adjusting either shutter speed or lens opening.

·     If you want, repeat the same action for the third exposure or more.

·      Whenever advancing the film advance lever for second exposure, make sure that the multi-exposure button is pressed firmly with the other hand and watch to see that exposure counter is not ad­vanced, indicating that multi-exposure picture is ready to be taken.

 

17. FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY

You can use a flash at night or in a dimly lit room as well as for sup­plementary lighting in outdoor photography. The camera and electro­nic flash will be fully synchronized with the shutter speed at "B" and 1 sec. to 1/125 sec.

 Cordless electronic flash unit:

If you are using an electronic flash unit with a built-in hot shoe con­tact, it can be attached directly to hot shoe on top of the camera pentaprism.

Exposure for flash photography:

The exposure is determined by the guide number of the flash bulb or electronic flash unit. The guide number represents a relationship bet­ween the light output of the flash and the speed of the film. Guide numbers for flash bulbs can be found on the package and guide num­bers for electronic flash units are found in the technical specifications. Using the guide number, you can determine the correct f-stop for a given flash situation using the following formula:

F-stop = Guide number / Flash-to-subject distance

For example, if your flash unit has a guide number of 16 (m) or 52.8 (ft.) for the type of film you are using, and your subject is 2 meters (6.6 ft.) from the flash unit as indicated on distance scale after focu­sing, divide 16 (52.8) by 2 (6.6). The answer is 8; therefore, set f-stop ring at 8 (f/8).

 

Tips for Better Results:

·     If you are using an auto electronic flash unit with power ratio control, follow the instruction sheets packed with flash unit.

·     Most electronic flash units have a built-in dial or exposure table which enables you to quickly compute f-stops based on flash-to­subject distances.

·    The Sears 8025 Auto Flash is available exclusively for use with the Sears KS Auto camera for automatic flash photography.

18. TROUBLE SHOOTING YOUR CAMERA

The proper operation of a precision instrument like the Sears KS 1000 camera requires strict at­tention to the correct manipulation of controls. In many cases, the camera may appear to malfunc­tion simply because some small detail was over­looked, or the operations were not in the proper sequence. Before you decide the camera is bro­ken, there are some things you can look for.

 

Problem: EXPOSURE METER NEEDLE WILL NOT MOVE TO TAKE READING.

Possible cause: Improper shutter speed/aper­ture combination for film and light conditions. Try changing the shutter speed/aperture com­bination until needle reacts. Or check to see that the correct type of battery is being used and has been inserted correctly.

Problem: FILM COMPLETELY BLANK WHEN PROCESSED, INDICATED NO EXPOSURE HAS BEEN MADE.

Possible cause: Improper loading. Review section on film loading and be sure you are loading the camera correctly with the film being securely attached to the take-up spool and winding in the CORRECT DIRECTION, that is UNDER the take-up spool. Film may not have gone through camera at all.

Problem: SELF TIMER DOES NOT OPERATE SHUTTER.

Possible cause: Timer not rotated at least 90 degrees.

Problem: LENS VERY HARD TO REMOVE FROM CAMERA. STOP IMMEDIATELY!

Possible cause: Pressure on film advance lever causing automatic diaphragm actuating plate to press against pin on back of lens.

THIS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS DAMAGE TO YOUR LENS. DO NOT FORCE THE LENS! Check to be sure the film advance lever is re­tracted.

Problem: FLASH PICTURES BLANK OR PARTIALLY EXPOSED.

Possible cause: Improper shutter speed for the type of flash used, or improper cord receptacle used for the type of bulb or shutter speed. Check Flash Synchronization Table carefully.

Problem: SHUTTER WILL NOT RELEASE.

Possible cause: Film advance lever not advan­ced far enough. A full stroke is necessary to cock the shutter. However, a ratchet incorpo­rated within the film advance mechanism will allow you to accomplish a full wind in a series of short strokes.

If the problems above cannot be solved in the manners suggested, do not attempt to repair the camera yourself. Take it to the nearest service center. A minor problem could be aggravated by tampering.

19. PROPER CARE OF YOUR CAMERA

·     Always carry your camera with its carrying case and neck strap.

·     Use the lens cap to protect the lens when not taking pictures.

·      Protect your camera from dust, dirt, water, rain, dampness, salt air and rough handling.

·      Never expose your camera to excessively high or low temperatures for an extended pe­riod of time. In extremely hot climates, do not leave your camera inside closed automo­biles during the daytime or in direct sunlight. In extremely cold climates, expose your ca­mera to the outer air only when in use... when using, expose your camera gradually to the outer air to prevent the lens from clou­ding. If exposed to an extremely cold clima­te, the exposure meter batteries may fail to operate properly. Keep your camera inside your clothing until taking a picture.

·     Never touch the surfaces of the lens, metal focal plane shutter curtain, reflex mirror, etc. with your fingers.

·     To clean the lens, gently wipe it in a circular motion with a lens cleaning paper or a soft, clean and lintless cloth.

·     Do not wipe the camera body with chemi­cals, such as benzine, thinner, etc. Use only soft cloth or cotton swab sprinkled LIGHTLY with alcohol on the camera body. Do not use them on the lens because it can affect coa­ting.

·     When your camera is not in use for an exten­ded period of time, put the lens cap on, re­move the batteries, place your camera in its carrying case together with silica gel or other desiccant and store it in a dry and cool place, Never store your camera in places where the temperatures are excessively high or low.

·     Do not attempt to disassemble or repair your camera yourself. If service is necessary, get in touch with your dealer.