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IMPORTANT NEW FEATURES IN YOUR
DOUBLE EXPOSURE CONTROL
A completely automatic device that now makes it impossible to accidentally double expose your film, yet enables you to make time exposures and also to make single exposures and double exposures for Hypo-Stereo, Hyper-Stereo and trick Stereo work.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATION OF NEW DOUBLE EXPOSURE CONTROL
To prevent Double Exposures
|Leave double exposure button (indicated by arrow) in this position. With button pushed in you cannot fire shutter again until film is advanced.|
To take Single Exposures -
1. Cap left lens.
2. Cock the shutter.
3. Expose first picture.
4. Cap right lens.
5. Then without transporting film for next picture pull double exposure button out and release.
6. Cock the shutter.
7. Expose second picture.
For Time Exposures you must
| 1. Pull double exposure button out and off center so button remains in
2. Take time exposure.
3. Be sure to release double exposure button when you are through taking your time exposure(s).
To take Intentional Double Exposure -
1. Cock shutter.
2. Expose picture.
3. Then without transporting film for next picture pull double exposure button out and release.
4. Cock the shutter.
5. Expose picture.
You have now made an intentional double exposure. Camera will return to automatic double exposure prevention after each intentional double exposure.
DEPTH OF FIELD SCALE
|An important feature of your Stereo-REALIST. The Depth of Field Scale
indicates the maximum range of sharpness, from the nearest point to the farthest point, that may
be obtained with your REALIST camera for each particular picture taking
The Depth of Field Scale consists of two sets of numbers opposite the distance scale on your focusing knob. The lower set of numbers, below near on the scale, indicates the near distances at which your camera lenses are in sharp focus, depending upon the f stop number you have chosen. The upper set of numbers, above far on the scale, indicates the far distances, depending upon that same f stop number. The corresponding upper and rawer numbers on your Depth of Field Scale indicate the range of sharpness in your picture in their relation to the distance scale.
HOW TO USE YOUR DEPTH OF FIELD SCALE
A good stereo picture is sharp from the nearest to the farthest point. When you take a stereo picture, you are trying to exactly duplicate the scene as your eyes see it. The pictures you take should be just as sharp as the actual scene. The Depth of Field Scale helps you obtain this over-all sharpness.
The Depth of Field Scale indicates the maximum range of sharpness, from the nearest point to the farthest point, that may be obtained when taking a picture of a given subject.
The depth of field is dependent on two variables, the f stop you have chosen and your distance setting. The range of sharpness is found by using the same upper and lower number on your Depth of Field Scale as the one used for your f stop opening. in some instances, it may be necessary to estimate the depth of field numbers when they are between those marked on the scale.
If after using your rangefinder, the arrow indicates on the distance scale that you are 10 feet away from your point of focus, and the f stop you have chosen for the proper exposure is f:5.6, the range of sharpness for
that picture will be from 7 feet (between 5 and 8) indicated on the lower range of numbers, to 17 feet indicated on the upper range of numbers. if you choose f:l6 as your f stop for the same distance (10 ft.) your picture range of sharpness will be from 5 feet to infinity.
If you are 3 1/2 feet away from your subject, the maximum range of sharpness for that subject is from approximately 2 1/2 feet to 5 feet at f:l6.
It is important remember when taking close-ups with the subject extremely close, that the range of sharpness is greatly reduced. in these cases, small lens openings are recommended to yield the greatest possible depth of field.
You will sometimes be forced to use a certain lens opening because of light conditions. For instance, you are in the mountains, the light is very bright, you have chosen an exposure of 1/50th of a second with a lens opening of f:8. The Depth of Field Scale can now be used to bring your maximum range of sharpness to infinity by moving infinity on the distance scale opposite 8 on the upper range of numbers. if you will note on the lower range of numbers, 9 feet is opposite f:8— indicating the range of sharpness is from 9 feet to infinity in ail pictures. it is best to check the distance of a near object in your picture to be sure it is not closer than 9 feet.
Another way to use your Depth of Field Scale would be to find the distance of the nearest object and the farthest object with your rangefinder. Let us say, the normal exposure is 1 /50th at f:6.3 and the nearest object is at 5 feet and the farthest distance is infinity. Then the f stop you could use would be f:l6, which would require a shutter speed 1/5th of a second. in this particular instance, a tripod or similar support must be used.
Imagine you are taking a flash picture, there is a chair in the immediate foreground at 5 feet, a wall at 15 feet, and a group of people behind a Able at about 8 or 9 feet. Try f 8—this gives you a setting on the upper range of numbers on the Depth of Field Scale of about 11 or 1 2 feet, when setting 5 feet on the distance scale opposite number 8 on the lower range. if you go to f:11 on the scale, you have the correct lens opening or f stop for a near dishnee of 5 feet and a far distance of between 15 and 25 feet.
The Depth of Field and Hyperfocal Table found on page 17 of your instruction book will give the complete range of sharpness for all distances.*
NOTE: There is not a sharp breaking off point between what is sharp and what is not sharp. Some leeway can be allowed before your pictures will become out of focus.
This convenient index, for basic exposures most open encountered when taking color pictures outdoors, is located under the lens cover.
CLICK HER TO SEE TABLE.
The first American made, precision
built, true stereoscopic camera.
if you are, as the owner of a new Stereo REALIST one who is about to use a stereoscopic camera for the first time, a rare thrill is in store for you. Your Stereo REALIST
- pictures will be so natural, so real, that you will almost expect them to come; to life.
On the other hand, if you are one of the many persons who have taken stereoscopic pictures in the past, it is probable that you have been limited to black and white film. Yours is now the new thrill of full color complemented by the third dimension—a technical achievement resulting in complete realism.
Stereoscopic (and let's not call it "stereopticon," which i s something else) photography is not new. it is, in fact, as old as photography itself, and the principles of stereoscopy were known long before that. As early as the sixteenth century, diagrams were drawn incorporating the elements of binocular vision and three dimensional seeing.
In the Stereo REALIST therefore, we claim nothing new i in principle. You will, however, find your REALIST to be a precise, well designed, high quality camera correctly incorporating the long known principles of stereoscopy, and at the same time taking full advantage of the latest developments in materials, lenses, mechanical design and color film.
We are proud of the Stereo REALIST. it is not the result I of casual or hurried designing. We are confident you
I will take pride in its ownership and experience much pleasure in using it.
DAVID WHITE COMPANY
Why we see stereoscopically
We see stereoscopically or with the "third dimension" because we have two eyes. Close one eye and the ability to judge distance or depth is lost. Each of our two eyes sees things from a different viewpoint and this difference in viewpoint, however slight, is one of the tools used by our brain to read the third dimension into things seen by the eyes. Also, the closer an object is to the eyes the more they have to converge or "toe-in" to see it. In exactly the same way as the range finder on a camera operates, this "human range finder" helps to tell us the distances to the objects we see.
The stereoscopic camera takes a pair of pictures, one picture corresponding to the viewpoint of each eye. When these pictures are viewed in the stereoscope, the left eye seeing the left picture and the right eye the right picture, the same factors of difference of viewpoint and convergence are present that were present when viewing the original scene, and we are able to interpret depth as well as though we were again actually seeing the original scene. So we see that the two pictures of a stereo "pair" are not identical even though they are open thought to be. identical pictures, mounted as a pair and viewed in a stereoscope, exhibit no stereo relief whatever.
The stereoscopic camera is therefore actually two cameras so arranged that two pictures are taken at the same time and from the two viewpoints corresponding to the spacing of the eyes. When these two pictures are mounted as a Stereo REALIST slide and we see them in the Viewer, they blend together or merge to reproduce the original subject life size and in full color.
1. Neck strap lug
2. Focusing knob
3. Film winding knob
4. Rewind release
5. Automatic exposure counter
6. Flash attachment clip
7. Shutter-trip indicator
8. Shutter release button
9. Rewind knob
10. Plastic lens cover
11. Range finder aperture
12. Matched objective lens
13. View-finder objective
14. Shutter speed setting ring
Diaphragm setting ring
16. Shutter cocking lever
17. Distance scale
18. Film wind release
19. Range-finder eye piece
20. View-finder eye piece
specifications of the STEREO-REALIST - MODEL ST41
BODY - Die cast aluminum, alumilite finish.
EXPOSED METAL PARTS -Satin chromium.
LENSES - Matched Cooke type coated anastigmat lenses of 35 mm. focal length, f:3.5, Iris diaphragms mechanically coupled.
SHUTTER - Gear retarded, ring set, cocking, behind the lens type with speeds of 1, 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 1/100 and 1/150 second, plus time and bulb.
SYNCHRONIZER—Built-in silver contacts—uses either 5 or 20 millisecond delay flash lamps (SM or No. 5 or equal) or strobe flash. Bulbs may be inserted before or after cocking shutter. Contact to attachment for photoflash is through attachment clip on top of camera.
VIEWFINDER - Direct vision, reverse Galilean type with objective lens midway between camera lenses completely eliminating viewfinder parallax. image is erect and unreversed.
FOCUSING - Internal by means of milled wheel at right end of camera body. Range - 2 1/2 feet to infinity. Distance scale appears on face of focusing wheel for convenience in calculating flash exposures and in setting camera on the hyperfocal distance.
RANGEFINDER—Coupled, split field military type. Magnification unity. Exceptionally wide base.
LENS COVER—Phenolic plastic - may be closed with filters in place. Caps viewfinder, automatically prevents exposures with lenses capped.
FILM TRANSPORT—Automatic spacing and positive locking of both winding knob and film sprocket.
FILM—20 or 36 exposures 35 mm. film in standard film magazines. Takes 16 pairs on the 20 exposure roll and 29 pairs on the 36 exposure roll. It is wise to familiarize yourself with any new piece of equipment before attempting to operate it. Therefore, before actually loading your new Stereo REALIST with film and taking pictures, we suggest that you study the following instructions carefully and learn the purpose and operation of the various controls with which the camera is equipped. Practice holding the camera before a mirror, watching particularly the position of your hands.
The plastic lens cover of your REALIST is designed to protect its lenses against damage and dust. To open— simply lift up from the bottom edge. A snap spring holds the cover in either the open or closed position. Since the cover in the closed position caps the viewfinder, there is no danger of forgetting to uncap the lenses.
Setting the diaphragm
|The iris diaphragm regulates the size of the opening which admits light to the camera. To set, rotate the rim of either lens to the required setting. (See figure 1.) Since the diaphragms of the two lenses are mechanically coupled this will automatically set both of them alike. information regarding proper diaphragm openings for various conditions is provided further on in this manual.|
Setting the shutter speed
|The Stereo REALIST provides ten shutter speeds— 1, 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 1/100, and 1/150 seconds, plus time (T)and bulb (B). When set on "bulb," the shutters remain open as long as the release button is depressed. On "time," the shutters open when the release button is first pressed and close when it is pressed a second time. To set the shutter speed rotate-the ring around the viewfinder objective lens to the speed setting desired. (Figure 2.) Only the denominator of the fraction is shown: for example, 50=1/50 of a second.|
Cocking the shutter
|The shutter should not be cocked until after the proper speed setting has been made. To cock - move cocking lever to left as far as it will go and then release. (See Figure 3.)|
The shutter release button is located on the left side of the too of the camera. (Figure 4.) This position makes
(Figure 4.) This position it easy to operate with the index finger of your left hand. Adjacent to the shutter release button is a socket for the cable release. Any American type with straight thread can be used.
The coupled rangefinder of the REALIST makes accurate focusing quick and easy. Looking through the rangefinder eyepiece (right hand aperture at the bottom of the camera back) select any vertical line in the view and rotate the focusing knob (Figure 5) with the second finger of the right hand until this line in the upper part of the split field matches the line in the lower part of the field. See diagrams below.
When taking pictures including considerable distance (over 100 feet) as well as foreground objects, it is advisable to set the focus on the hyperfocal distance. This setting gives the greatest possible depth of field. (See Table on page 17.) With the camera set on this distance everything will be sharp from one-half the hyperfocal distance to infinity. If no foreground objects are included, focus the camera on infinity.
Holding the Stereo Realist
Figure 6 shows the
correct position of the hands when using the REALIST. The second finger of the right
is used to rotate the focusing
knob, and the shutter is operated by the second finger of the left hand. The left thumb is under the
camera. Be careful that your other fingers do not obscure the two range
The l o c a t io
n of viewfinder a n d rangefinder eye-pieces makes it easy to steady the camera against your
forehead when taking pictures. (See figure 7.) Of course, the use of a tripod wherever possible
will result in better pictures.
The l o c a t io n of viewfinder a n d rangefinder eye-pieces makes it easy to steady the camera against your forehead when taking pictures. (See figure 7.) Of course, the use of a tripod wherever possible will result in better pictures.
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